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- Reference Without Sense: An Examination of Putnam’s Semantic Theory
- The Problem with Reference of Natural Kind Terms in Putnam's Theory
- Explanation and Reference
- Meaning and Reference Hilary Putnam The Journal …
That knowing the meaning of a term is just a matter of being in a certain psychological state. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Reference Without Sense: An Examination of Putnam’s Semantic Theory
We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. He wantsto say that it's not a thing. As a matterof fact,it's malt Scotch, one of the thingsI particularly dislike.
And it's the only thingI got for Chris-tmas not the bottle,the Scotch: it came in a different bottle. It is not a matter wieldingthe OED or theDaily of News here to establish anything momentous;I'm only asking why Chappell wantsus to talk his way.
He thinksthatif we ask,What is the Scotchin thatbottle identicalwith? But the Scotch in that bottle is the same as the whiskey thatbottle,the liquid in in that bottle,the stuff I'm about to give you because I can't stand it. And he wants to say that it constitutes thing,even when you a mix it with soda. He is not contentwith the idea that the thing of which it is a part is Scotch and soda, or a glass of Scotch and soda; I don't know why.
He wants to say that the Scotch in that Scotch and soda constitutes composessomething its own, and or all so he adopts the device of prefixing'heap of' or 'aggregate of' to words for stuffs, guarantee that we'll always have a countto noun phrase for? And I don't see that: if we are so sure that therealwayswill be a thingcomposedof any stuff encounter, mightas well just prefix'thingcomposedof' we we and be done withit.
And, anyway, whyshould we be so sure? The doctrine that the meaning of a termis a concept carried the implicationthat meanings are mental entities. Frege,however, rebelled against this "psychologism.
Commentators will be Charles Chastain and Keith S. A very much expanded version of this paper will appear in volume 7 or 8 of Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science edited by Keith Gunderson , under the title"The Meaning of 'Meaning'. However, "grasping" these abstract entities was still an individual psychologicalact. None of these philosophersdoubted thatunderstanding word knowingits intension was just a matter a of being in a certainpsychologicalstate somewhatin the way in which knowinghow to factornumbersin one's head is just a matter of being in a certain verycomplex psychologicalstate.
Secondly,the timeworn example of the two terms'creaturewith a kidney'and 'creaturewith a heart' does show that two termscanl have the same extension and yet differ intension. But it was in taken to be obvious that the reverseis impossible: two termscannot differ extensionand have the same intension. Interestingly, in no argumentfor this impossibility was ever offered.
Probably it reflects traditionof the ancientand medieval philosophers, the who assumed that the concept corresponding a termwas just a conto junction of predicates, and hence that the conceptcorresponding to a termmust always provide a necessary and sufficient conditionfor fallinginto the extensionof the term. For philosophers like Carnap, who accepted the verifiability theoryof meaning,the concept corresponding to a term provided in the ideal case, where the term had "complete meaning" a criterionfor belonging to the extension not just in the sense of "necessaryand sufficient condition," but in the strong sense of way of recognizingwhether a given thingfalls into the extensionor not.
So theoryof meaning came to reston twounchallengedassumptions: 1 That knowingthe meaningof a termis just a matterof being in a certain psychological state in the sense of "psychological state," in which states of memoryand belief are "psychological states"; no one thoughtthat knowingthe meaning of a word was a continuousstateof consciousness, course.
I shall argue thatthesetwo assumptions not jointlysatisfied are by any notion,let alone any notion of meaning. The traditionalconcept of meaning is a conceptwhich restson a false theory. For the purpose of the followingscience-fiction examples,we shall suppose that somewhere thereis a planet we shall call Twin Earth.
He may even suppose that he has a Doppelganger-an identical copy-on Twin Earth, if he wishes,althoughmy storieswill not depend on this. Although some of the people on Twin Earth say, those who call themselves "Americans"and thosewho call themselves "Canadians" and those who call themselves"Englishmen," etc. One of the peculiaritiesof Twin Earth is that the liquid called "water" is not H20 but a different liquid whose chemical formula is very long and complicated.
I shall abbreviate this chemical formulasimplyas XYZ. I shall suppose that XYZ is indistinguishable fromwater at normal temperatures pressures. If a space ship from Earth ever visits Twin Earth, then the suppositionat first will be that 'water' has the same meaning on Earth and on Twin Earth. This suppositionwill be corrected when it is discoveredthat "water" on Twin Earth is XYZ, and the Earthian space ship will reportsomewhatas follows.
This supposition will be correctedwhen it is discoveredthat "water" on Earth is H20, and the Twin Earthian space ship will report: "On Earth the word 'water'means H The extension of 'water' in the sense of waterE is the set of all wholes consistingof molecules,or something like that; the extensionof waterin the sense of waterTEis the set of all wholes consistingof XYZ molecules, or something like that.
Now let us roll the timeback to about The typicalEarthian speakerof English did not know that water consistedof hydrogen and oxygen,and the typicalTwin-Earthianspeakerof English did. You may suppose that thereis no belief that Oscar, had about water that Oscar2 did not have about "water.
Yet the extension of the term 'water' was just as much H20 on Earth in as in ; and the extensionof the term'water'was just as much XYZ on Twin Earth in as in Oscar1 and Oscar2understoodthe term'water'differently althoughthey in werein thesame psychological state,and although,giventhestateof scienceat the time,it would have taken theirscientific communities about fifty years to discoverthat theyunderstoodthe term 'water' differently.
Thus the extensionof the term'water' and, in fact,its "meaning" in the intuitivepreanalyticalusage of that term is not a functionof the psychological state of the speakerby itself. Suppose I point to a glass of water and say "this liquid is called water. Log in Get Started. TAGS: u meaning philosophy of science malt scotch glass of scotch just prefixthingcomposedof jstor archive different bottle reference authors.
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The Problem with Reference of Natural Kind Terms in Putnam's Theory
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In this paper, I will outline some of the important points made by Kripke and Putnam on the meaning of natural kind terms. Their notion of the baptism of natural kinds- the process by which kind terms are initially introduced into the language — is of special concern here. I argue that their accounts leave some ambiguities that suggest a baptism of objects and kinds that is free of additional theoretical commitments. Both authors suggest that we name the stuff and then let the scientists tell us what properties it really has, and hence what the real meaning is. I contend that such a barren baptism, taken at face value, cannot succeed in the semantic roles it has been assigned and that softening the stance on baptism suggests a more subtle and complex relation between reference and theoretical commitment than has emerged thus far. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Knowing the meaning (of a word, sentence) is being in a psychological state. Even Frege, who thought that meanings (“senses”) were public.
Explanation and Reference
We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. He wantsto say that it's not a thing. As a matterof fact,it's malt Scotch, one of the thingsI particularly dislike. And it's the only thingI got for Chris-tmas not the bottle,the Scotch: it came in a different bottle.
In other words, the average resident of either planet would not be able to distinguish H20 from XYZ. Putnam uses this result to indicate that it is false that intensions are psychological entities. Filed under Article Summaries. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account.
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Meaning and Reference Hilary Putnam The Journal …
You only need to read up to the section "Indexicality and Rigidity", which begins on p. If you have the reprint from Putnam's Mind, Language, and Reality , that section begins on p. But those of you who have some prior experience with this material should read further into the paper.
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У нас все это записано на пленку, и если вы хотите… - Исчезает фильтр Х-одиннадцать! - послышался возглас техника. - Червь преодолел уже половину пути. - Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф. - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул. На сей раз голос его прозвучал с несвойственным ему спокойствием: - Директор, если мы введем неверный ключ… - Верно, - прервала его Сьюзан.
Meaning and reference · Hilary Putnam · Journal of Philosophy 70 (19) ().
Немец побелел. - Mord. Убийство. - Да. Убийство азиата сегодня утром.
Массажистка быстро убрала руки из-под полотенца. В дверях появилась телефонистка и поклонилась: - Почтенный господин. - Слушаю. Телефонистка отвесила еще один поклон: - Я говорила с телефонной компанией. Звонок был сделан из страны с кодом один - из Соединенных Штатов. Нуматака удовлетворенно мотнул головой.
Это совершенно ясно. Тем не менее риск велик: если нас обнаружат, это, в сущности, будет означать, что он своим алгоритмом нас напугал. Нам придется публично признать не только то, что мы имеем ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но и то, что Цифровая крепость неприступна. - Каким временем мы располагаем. Стратмор нахмурился: - Танкадо намерен назвать победителя аукциона завтра в полдень. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее сводит желудок. - А что .
Он оказался в узком, увешанном зеркалами туннеле, который вел на открытую террасу, уставленную столами и стульями. На террасе тоже было полно панков, но Беккеру она показалась чем-то вроде Шангри-Ла: ночное летнее небо над головой, тихие волны долетающей из зала музыки. Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу.
Осмотрели карманы, одежду, бумажники. Ничего похожего.