File Name: neonatal and pediatric pharmacology therapeutic principles in practice .zip
- Neonatal Pharmacology: Extensive Interindividual Variability Despite Limited Size
- Regional Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: General Considerations
- Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology: Therapeutic Principles in Practice
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Neonatal Pharmacology: Extensive Interindividual Variability Despite Limited Size
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Regional anesthesia is an essential part of modern pediatric anesthetic practice, conveying many significant advantages to the patient and to the hospital Table 1. However, despite a strong body of evidence highlighting the advantages of regional anesthesia, it has been only relatively recently that regional anesthesia has begun to become more common place in anesthetic practice. However, complications were four times greater in children aged less than 6 months compared to those older than 6 months. Historically, it was thought that neonates required little or no analgesia. However, inadequate analgesia in the neonate can cause biobehavioral changes that may modulate future responses to pain in childhood. As a consequence, advanced regional anesthesia techniques eg, epidural analgesia have become increasingly utilized in children of all ages.
Regional Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: General Considerations
Providing safe and effective drug therapy to neonates requires knowledge of the impact of development on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Although maturational changes are observed throughout childhood, they are most prominent during the first year of life. Several of these processes overlap, making development an extremely dynamic system in the newborn compared with that in infants, children, or adults. Changes in body composition and porportions, liver mass, metabolic activity, and renal function collectively affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of medications. Unfortunately, the effects of human ontogeny on both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been well established in these early stages of life, and information regarding the influence of developmental changes on the pharmacodynamics of medications is even more limited. Theoretically, age-dependent variations in receptor number and affinity for drugs have significant potential to influence an individual's response to drug therapy. In this review, some of the relevant covariates of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates are reviewed and illustrated based on the published literature.
Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology: Therapeutic Principles in Practice and dilemmas in these areas as well the standards of practice essential for clinical researchers to understand. Request Full-text Paper PDF.
Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology: Therapeutic Principles in Practice
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Variations in absorption of medications from the gastrointestinal tract, intramuscular injection sites, and skin are important in pediatric patients, especially in premature and other newborn infants. The rate and extent of organ function development and the distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs differ not only between pediatric versus adult patients but also among pediatric age groups. The effectiveness and safety of drugs may vary among age groups and from one drug to another in pediatric versus adult patients.
Женщина, наклонившаяся над умирающим, очевидно, услышала полицейскую сирену: она нервно оглянулась и потянула тучного господина за рукав, как бы торопя. Оба поспешили уйти. Камера снова показала Танкадо, его руку, упавшую на бездыханную грудь. Кольца на пальце уже не. ГЛАВА 118 - Это может служить доказательством, - решительно заявил Фонтейн.
- Но ситуация чрезвычайная. Сьюзан встала. Чрезвычайная ситуация. Она не помнила, чтобы это слово срывалось когда-нибудь с губ коммандера Стратмора. Чрезвычайная.
Да уж, - застонал. - Чуточку. - Это как будто деление на ноль.