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- Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology, 2nd Edition
- Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, 2nd Edition
- Veterinary Laboratory Medicine CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND HAEMATOLOGY Second Edition
James K. In veterinary medicine, as in human medicine, reference values are necessary for useful interpretation of laboratory results. Without appropriate reference values, the sensitivity and specificity of tests are lowered, which can result in erroneous diagnoses and treatment protocols that may cause harm to or death of the animal tested.
Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology, 2nd Edition
The hemoglobin type depends on the type of globin chains, which are determined by amino acid sequences. Embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobins are found in various animals. The presence and number of each hemoglobin type vary with the species.
Heme and globin synthesis are balanced increase in one results in an increase in the other. Abnormalities in globin synthesis i. It has been found to play a key role in mediation of iron metabolism.
In short, increased hepcidin is accompanied by a decrease in iron availability, whereas decreased Hepcidin is associated with an increase in iron availability. Hepcidin is a component of the type II acute phase response induced by interleukin-6 and controls plasma iron concentration by inhibiting iron export by ferroportin from enterocytes and macrophages.
Absorption is regulated by the amount of storage iron large iron stores decrease absorption and rate of erythropoiesis accelerated erythropoiesis increases absorption. Less than 0. Iron bound to transferrin is measured as serum iron SI.
This is an unreliable measure of total body iron stores. Conditions with decreased SI 1 Iron deficiency 2 Acute and chronic inflammation or disease including anemia of inflammatory disease 3 Hypoproteinemia 4 Hypothyroidism 5 Renal disease b. Conditions with increased SI 1 Hemolytic anemia 2 Accidental lysis of erythrocytes during sampling hemolysis 3 Glucocorticoid excess in the dog and horse. In contrast, SI is decreased in cattle with glucocorticoid excess.
Iron overload in some birds e. SI can be expressed as a percentage of total iron-binding capacity TIBC, see below and reported as the percent saturation. TIBC is an indirect measurement of the amount of iron that transferrin will bind. An immunologic method is available to quantitate transferrin, but is not used commonly. Only one-third of transferrin binding sites usually are occupied by iron.
This is expressed as percent saturation. TIBC is increased in iron deficiency in most species except the dog. Transferrin can bind more iron than is normally present. Hepcidin has been found to be the main regulator of iron homeostasis; it is produced in the liver and acts systemically in iron overloading increased or in response to anemia or hypoxia decreased.
Hephaestin an intestinal ceruloplasmin analog and ceruloplasmin synthesized in the liver are both copper-containing proteins involved in iron transport. Ceruloplasmin also is an acute phase inflammatory reactant. Ferroportin 1 and divalent metal transporter 1 DMT1 are necessary for transfer of iron from intestinal epithelium and macrophages to serum transferrin. Hepcidin induces the internalization and degradation of ferroportin, thereby inhibiting iron transport.
Iron is incorporated into hemoglobin during the last step of heme synthesis. Lack of intracellular iron causes an increase in erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. Iron is stored in macrophages as ferritin and hemosiderin.
Ferritin is a water-soluble iron-protein complex. Ferritin is the more labile storage form of iron. Small amounts circulate that can be measured as serum ferritin, which is an indirect measurement of the storage iron pool. A species-specific immunoassay is required. Serum ferritin concentration is decreased in iron deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration is increased in the following: 1 Hemolytic anemia 2 Iron overload 3 Acute and chronic inflammation 4 Liver disease 5 Some neoplastic disorders e.
Hemosiderin is a more stable, but less available, storage form of iron that is comprised of native and denatured ferritin and protein.
It is not water-soluble and is stainable within tissues by Perl' s or Prussian blue techniques. Abnormalities in serum iron are related to absorptive failures, nutritional deficiencies, iron loss via hemorrhage, and aberrant iron metabolism with diversion to macrophages at the expense of hematopoietic cells which occurs in chronic disease processes and inflammation.
Biochemical pathways found in mature erythrocytes are listed in Figure 1. Embden-Meyerhof pathway 1. Enzyme deficiencies in this pathway can lead to hemolytic anemia e. Stem cells, progenitor cells, and precursor cells Figure 1. These cells have the capacity for self-renewal and differentiate into progenitor cells. Differentiation is controlled by growth-promoting stimuli produced by marrow stromal cells. When a stem cell differentiates, it loses some of its ability to self-replicate and also loses some of its potentiality.
Progenitor cellsa. Some early progenitor cells have the capability of differentiating into more than one cell line e. Erythrocyte production can be increased up to seven times the normal rate in humans, providing the necessary stimulation and nutrients are present. This capacity to increase production varies with the animal species. It is greatest in birds and dogs and least in cattle and horses.
An increase in the number of erythrocytes delivered to the blood occurs primarily via increased stem cell input and, to a lesser extent, by a shortened maturation time.
Erythrocytes may be delivered to the circulation faster by earlier reticulocyte release and skipped cell divisions. These processes do not increase the total number of erythrocytes produced and are of temporary benefit. Regulation of erythropoiesis a. Androgens increase Epo release. In contrast, estrogens and corticosteroids decrease Epo release, but their effect is probably not clinically significant.
Thyroid and pituitary hormones alter the tissue demands for oxygen, thereby changing the requirement for erythropoiesis. The average erythrocyte lifespan in circulation varies with the species: cow, days; sheep, days; horse, days; dog, days; pig, 86 days; cat, 70 days; bird, approximately 35 days.
In certain disease states, anemia may develop more quickly in birds and cats than in large animals because of the normally short erythrocyte lifespan. Aging of erythrocytes is accompanied by changes in enzyme content and cell membrane structure that make the cells less capable of survival and subject to removal by the spleen.
In health, senescent erythrocytes are removed from circulation by two routes. Phagocytosis by macrophages is the major route of senescent erythrocyte removal Figure 1. Within the phagosome, the erythrocyte releases its hemoglobin, which is split into heme and globin. Globin is broken down to its constituent amino acids, which are reutilized.
After releasing the iron, heme is cleaved by heme oxygenase, forming carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Hct is the percent of blood comprised of erythrocytes. Plasma obtained by this method can be used for other routine determinations. The buffy coat zone, a white layer between the RBCs and plasma, is comprised of leukocytes and platelets.
Measurement of its width has been used to estimate white blood cell counts. Microfilaria may be detected by microscopic examination of the plasma just above the buffy coat layer. Most automated cell counters, designed for human blood, calculate the Hct after determining the RBC count and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocyte population. The potential for error is greater than the PCV method, because only dogs have an erythrocyte volume that is comparable to human RBCs.
Other domestic mammals have smaller erythrocytes than humans. However, newer and more advanced hematology analyzers can be modified easily to identify blood cells of many different species. Birds have elliptical, nucleated erythrocytes, which may interfere with automated RBC counts. Hb concentration 1. Colorimetric determination by the cyanmethemoglobin technique or the newer cyanide-free hemoglobinhydroxylamine complex method is used most frequently.
Avian erythrocytes must be lysed and the specimen must be centrifuged to remove free nuclei before Hb concentration can be accurately determined and indices calculated. Some automated instruments directly measure optical density of oxyhemoglobin.
Hb concentration provides the most direct indication of oxygen transport capacity of the blood and should be approximately one-third the Hct if erythrocytes are of normal size. Determination of Hb concentration provides no clinical advantage over the Hct other than allowing the calculation of mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC see below. However, Hb concentration may be slightly more accurate in determining changes in circulating RBC mass when compared to Hct.
Newer hematology analyzers also generate a Hb concentration histogram. RBC count 1. RBC counts, performed with a hemocytometer, have a large degree of error. Thus, hemacytometer-derived RBC counts are of limited value, except in avian species.
Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, 2nd Edition
The completely revised 2nd Edition shows how to interpret results from abnormal clinical pathology findings for dogs, cats, horses, and ruminants. This handy guide also describes the pathophysiology responsible for abnormal clinicopathologic findings. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Saunders, Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller.
Veterinary Laboratory Medicine CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND HAEMATOLOGY Second Edition
Latimer free in pdf format. With information on all major domestic species, the text is designed for the reader to quickly find answers to clinical questions. Taking a problem-solving approach to the interpretation of laboratory data, this book includes clinical cases to illustrate the concepts of laboratory data interpretation, with tables and key words to aid readers in locating and applying information.
Kerr January Veterinary Laboratory Medicine covers all aspects of basic clinical biochemistry and haematology, and includes test-by-test interpretation of laboratory results. Information is provided on sampling techniques, the selection and use of an external laboratory, as well as near-patient testing and the practice laboratory. Also included are step-by-step instructions for most commonly used point-of-care tests, a guide to the evaluation of instruments for in-practice use, and a detailed explanation of the principles of impedance counting and photometric analysis. The book will be ideal for practitioners who require a guide to laboratory work, and for veterinary students studying laboratory medicine and clinical pathology. The second edition has been fully updated to reflect advances in diagnostic techniques, and includes new chapters on diagnostic endocrinology and feline virus testing as well as a much expanded chapter on diagnostic profiling and pattern recognition.
Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Biochemistry and Haematology, 2nd Edition covers all aspects of basic clinical biochemistry and haematology, and includes test-by-test interpretation of laboratory results. Information is provided on sampling techniques, the selection and use of an external laboratory, as well as near-patient testing and the practice laboratory. Also included are step-by-step instructions for most commonly used point-of-care tests, a guide to the evaluation of instruments for in-practice use, and a detailed explanation of the principles of impedance counting and photometric analysis. The book will be ideal for practitioners who require a guide to laboratory work, and for veterinary students studying laboratory medicine and clinical pathology. The second edition has been fully updated to reflect advances in diagnostic techniques, and includes new chapters on diagnostic endocrinology and feline virus testing as well as a much expanded chapter on diagnostic profiling and pattern recognition.
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