File Name: unconventional oil and gas resources exploitation and development .zip
- Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook
- Risks of Shale Gas exploitation in Europe
- Exploitation of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
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Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook
Existing Owner Audit Program. View the Press Release to learn more. Learn more. Report illegal disposal of wastes or other non-emergency suspicious activity related to oil and natural gas development through epa. The U. Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits.
We have played a lead role in convening stakeholders and conducting outreach to individual citizens, communities, tribes, state and federal partners, industry, trade associations and environmental organizations that have a strong interest in the agency's work and policies related to unconventional oil and natural gas extraction.
Our focus and obligations under the law are to provide oversight, guidance and, where appropriate, rulemaking and enforcement, that achieve the best possible protections for human health and the air, water and land where Americans live, work and play. April Memorandum of Agreement among the U. Departments of Energy and Interior and the U.
This statutory language caused regulators and the regulated community alike to raise questions about the applicability of permitting practices. As the number of shale gas wells in the U. Wastewater associated with shale gas extraction can contain high levels of salt content also called total dissolved solids total dissolved solids The quantity of dissolved material in a given volume of water.
The wastewater can also contain various organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive materials also referred to as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material or TENORM. In partnership with states,we are examining the different management methods employed by industry to ensure that there are regulatory and permitting frameworks in place to provide safe and legal options for disposal of flowback and produced water.
These options include:. In many regions of the U. The Clean Water Act CWA effluent guidelines program sets national standards for industrial wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants based on the performance of treatment and control technologies. Effluent guidelines for on-shore oil and natural gas extraction facilities prohibit the discharge of pollutants into surface waters, except for wastewater that is of good enough quality for use in agricultural and wildlife propagation for those onshore facilities located in the continental United States and west of the 98th meridian.
We are collecting data and information related to the extent to which CWT facilities accept such wastewater, available treatment technologies and their associated costs , discharge characteristics, financial characteristics of CWT facilities, the environmental impacts of discharges from CWT facilities, and other relevant information.
In some cases, operators use surface storage tanks and pits to temporarily store hydraulic fracturing fluids for re-use or until arrangements are made for disposal. In addition, other wastes are generated during the well drilling, stimulation, and production stages.
States, tribes, and some local governments have primary responsibility for adopting and implementing programs to ensure proper management of these wastes. Re-use of shale gas wastewater is, in part, dependent on the levels of pollutants in the wastewater and the proximity of other fracturing sites that might re-use the wastewater. This practice has the potential to reduce discharges to treatment facilities or surface waters, minimize underground injection of wastewater and conserve water resources.
There have been well-documented air quality impacts in areas with active natural gas development, with increases in emissions of methane, volatile organic compounds VOCs and hazardous air pollutants HAPs. The EPA, the Department of the Interior, other federal agencies and states are working to better characterize and reduce these air emissions and their associated impacts.
Through the Natural Gas STAR program, the EPA and partner companies have identified technologies and practices that can cost-effectively reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector in the U.
Through the Clean Construction USA program, we are promoting newer, more efficient technology and cleaner fuels to innovate the ways in which hydraulic fracturing equipment and vehicles reduce emissions. In July , EPA and the State of New Mexico entered into a Memorandum of Understanding MOU to clarify the existing regulatory and permitting frameworks related to the way produced water from oil and gas extraction activities can be reused, recycled, and renewed for other purposes.
Both EPA and certain IOGCC member regulators maintain authority and responsibility over produced water, making federal and state collaboration on the management and regulation of produced water essential.
We target compliance and enforcement activities to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, with an emphasis on correcting violations with significant potential harm to human health and the environment.
In addition to self-directed investigations, we receive thousands of leads and incident reports relating to oil and natural gas activities that could impact human health and air or water quality. We work with state and local governments to respond to incidents, encourage diligent accident prevention, and provide effective and prompt responses when emergencies occur. Our offices around the nation "Regions" or "Regional offices" provide guidance and grants to state regulators, perform inspections, conduct enforcement actions, and issue permits and information request letters, in order to ensure that existing federal laws are consistently and effectively implemented.
In March , EPA announced a voluntary disclosure program for new owners of upstream oil and natural gas exploration and facilities.
In December , EPA temporarily expanded its voluntary self-audit and disclosure program for upstream oil and natural gas facilities by giving existing owners the opportunity to find, correct, and self-disclose Clean Air Act violations. Learn more about the Existing Owner Audit Program for oil and natural gas production facilities.
Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. Contact Us. Report Environmental Violations Report illegal disposal of wastes or other non-emergency suspicious activity related to oil and natural gas development through epa.
You can provide tips anonymously if you do not want to identify yourself. Department of Interior, U. Our study of hydraulic fracturing and its potential impact on drinking water resources: We studied the relationship between hydraulic fracturing for oil and natural gas and drinking water resources. The study includes a review of published literature, analysis of existing data, scenario evaluation and modeling, laboratory studies, and case studies.
We released a progress report in December ; a final draft assessment report for peer review and comment in June ; and the final report in December Our report concludes that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources under some circumstances and identifies factors that influence these impacts.
Learn more:. Natural gas and shale gas extraction operations can result in a number of potential impacts to the environment, including:.
Stress on surface water and ground water supplies from the withdrawal of large volumes of water used in drilling and hydraulic fracturing; Contamination of underground sources of drinking water and surface waters resulting from spills, faulty well construction , or by other means; Adverse impacts from discharges into surface waters or from disposal into underground injection wells; and Air pollution resulting from the release of volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and greenhouse gases.
The guidance outlines for our permit writers, where we are the permitting authority,. The MOU objectives are to renew a joint task force to:. The MOU objectives are to:.
Risks of Shale Gas exploitation in Europe
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The stimulation of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs is proven to improve their productivity to an extent that has rendered them economically viable. Generally, the stimulation design is a complex process dependent on intertwining factors such as the history of the formation, rock and reservoir fluid type, lithology and structural layout of the formation, cost, time, etc. A holistic grasp of This book presents the key facets integral to producing unconventional resources, and how the different components, if pieced together, can be used to create an integrated stimulation design. Exploitation of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Recovery and Assessment Techniques is an excellent introduction to the subject area of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, but it also complements existing information in the same discipline.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Pavelek Published Environmental Science. Unconventional crude oil sources are geographically extensive and include the tar sands of the Provinc e of Alberta in Canada, the heavy oil belt of the Orinoco region of Venezue la and the oil shales of the United States, Brazil, India and Malagasy. High production costs and low oil prices have hitherto inhibited th e inclusion of unconventional oil resources in the world oil resource figures.
Exploitation of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Handbook: Evaluation and Development is a must-have, helpful handbook that brings a wealth of information to engineers and geoscientists. Bridging between subsurface and production, the handbook provides engineers and geoscientists with effective methodology to better define resources and reservoirs. Better reservoir knowledge and innovative technologies are making unconventional resources economically possible, and multidisciplinary approaches in evaluating these resources are critical to successful development.
This paper describes the interaction between hydraulic fractures and the multi-porosity system of matrix porosity and natural fracture porosity in shale reservoirs. During the process of hydraulic fracturing, a complex fracture network consisting of primary and secondary hydraulic fractures as well as natural fractures is created. It is postulated that only shale porosities connected with this network will contribute to hydrocarbon production. The size of the micro-sized proppant should be designed to be between one-seventh and one-third the aperture size of the natural fractures.
This report sets out the key environmental and health risks associated with the potential development of high volume hydraulic fracturing in Europe. It addresses the impacts and risks that differ from conventional gas exploration and extraction which are already addressed in regulations. The study reviewed available information on a range of potential risks and impacts of high volume hydraulic fracturing, and concentrated on both the direct impacts of hydraulic fracturing as well as the associated activities such as transportation and waste water management.
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional method oil well.
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