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- C.G. Jung and Literary Theory
- Carl Gustav Jung
- Jung as a Writer
- Carl Gustav Jung Archetypes and Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness"
Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality , archetypes , and the collective unconscious. His work has been influential in psychiatry and in the study of religion , literature , and related fields. Jung was the son of a philologist and pastor.
C.G. Jung and Literary Theory
By Saul McLeod , published Carl Jung was an early supporter of Freud because of their shared interest in the unconscious. When the International Psychoanalytical Association formed in Jung became president at the request of Freud. The following year this led to an irrevocable split between them and Jung went on to develop his own version of psychoanalytic theory.
Most of Jung's assumptions of his analytical psychology reflect his theoretical differences with Freud. Jung disagreed with Freud regarding the role of sexuality. He believed the libido was not just sexual energy, but instead generalized psychic energy. For Jung, the purpose of psychic energy was to motivate the individual in a number of important ways, including spiritually, intellectually, and creatively. It was also an individual's motivational source for seeking pleasure and reducing conflict.
Like Freud and Erikson Jung regarded the psyche as made up of a number of separate but interacting systems. The three main ones were the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the ego represents the conscious mind as it comprises the thoughts, memories, and emotions a person is aware of. The ego is largely responsible for feelings of identity and continuity. Like Freud, Jung , emphasized the importance of the unconscious in relation to personality.
However, he proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers. The personal unconscious contains temporality forgotten information and well as repressed memories.
Jung outlined an important feature of the personal unconscious called complexes. A complex is a collection of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and memories that focus on a single concept. The more elements attached to the complex, the greater its influence on the individual. Jung also believed that the personal unconscious was much nearer the surface than Freud suggested and Jungian therapy is less concerned with repressed childhood experiences.
It is the present and the future, which in his view was the key to both the analysis of neurosis and its treatment. This is his most original and controversial contribution to personality theory.
The collective unconscious is a universal version of the personal unconscious, holding mental patterns, or memory traces, which are shared with other members of human species Jung, These ancestral memories, which Jung called archetypes, are represented by universal themes in various cultures, as expressed through literature, art, and dreams. These universal predispositions stem from our ancestral past.
Fear of the dark, or of snakes and spiders might be examples, and it is interesting that this idea has recently been revived in the theory of prepared conditioning Seligman, However, more important than isolated tendencies are those aspects of the collective unconscious that have developed into separate sub-systems of the personality. Jung called these ancestral memories and images archetypes. Jung believes symbols from different cultures are often very similar because they have emerged from archetypes shared by the whole human race which are part of our collective unconscious.
For Jung, our primitive past becomes the basis of the human psyche, directing and influencing present behavior. Jung claimed to identify a large number of archetypes but paid special attention to four.
The persona or mask is the outward face we present to the world. This is the public face or role a person presents to others as someone different to who we really are like an actor. Each sex manifests attitudes and behavior of the other by virtue of centuries of living together. The psyche of a woman contains masculine aspects the animus archetype , and the psyche of a man contains feminine aspects the anima archetype. Next is the shadow. This is the animal side of our personality like the id in Freud.
It is the source of both our creative and destructive energies. Finally, there is the self which provides a sense of unity in experience. For Jung, the ultimate aim of every individual is to achieve a state of selfhood similar to self-actualisation , and in this respect, Jung like Erikson is moving in the direction of a more humanist orientation. Jung argues that these archetypes are products of the collective experience of men and women living together.
However, in modern Western civilization men are discouraged from living their feminine side and women from expressing masculine tendencies. For Jung, the result was that the full psychological development both sexes was undermined. Together with the prevailing patriarchal culture of Western civilization this has led to the devaluation of feminine qualities altogether, and the predominance of the persona the mask has elevated insincerity to a way of life which goes unquestioned by millions in their everyday life.
It may also be because his ideas were a little more mystical and obscure, and less clearly explained. Furthermore, Jung himself argues that the constant recurrence of symbols from mythology in personal therapy and in the fantasies of psychotics support the idea of an innate collective cultural residue. Jung proposed that human responses to archetypes are similar to instinctual responses in animals.
One criticism of Jung is that there is no evidence that archetypes are biologically based or similar to animal instincts Roesler, Rather than being seen as purely biological, more recent research suggests that archetypes emerge directly from our experiences and are reflections of linguistic or cultural characteristics Young-Eisendrath, He was the first to distinguish the two major attitudes or orientations of personality — extroversion and introversion Jung, He also identified four basic functions thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting which in a cross-classification yield eight pure personality types.
Psychologists like Hans Eysenck and Raymond Cattell have subsequently built upon this. As well as being a cultural icon for generations of psychology undergraduates Jung, therefore, put forward ideas which were important to the development of modern personality theory.
McLeod, S. Carl jung. Simply Psychology. Jung, C. Psychological types. The collected works of CG Jung, Vol. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 3 3 , The phenomenology of the spirit in fairy tales. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious , 9 Part 1 , Roesler, C. Are archetypes transmitted more by culture than biology? Questions arising from conceptualizations of the archetype.
Journal of Analytical Psychology, 57 2 , Young-Eisendrath, P. Struggling with jung: The value of uncertainty. Psychological Perspectives, 31 1 , Toggle navigation.
Download this article as a PDF. How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top. Introduction Freud vs.
Carl Gustav Jung
Thanks for the nice blog. It was very useful for me. I'm happy I found this blog. Thank you for sharing with us,I too always learn something new from your post. For those who have to teach these "hi-fi abstract ideas" to the present generation of students, including the university research scholars, your block is an useful one. In fact, even in this simple narration there are many abstract derivations.
Jung as a Writer
Carl Gustav Jung Archetypes and Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness"
Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry , anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy and religious studies. During this time, he came to the attention of Sigmund Freud , the founder of psychoanalysis. The two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his "new science" of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as President of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association.
Sigmund Freud — founder of psychoanalysis. Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology and who proposed the concepts of extrovert and introvert personalities, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. He also developed valuable methods of psychiatric therapy. Jung made his name as a psychiatrist with a study of schizophrenia, using both physiological and psychological methods. He showed that word association tests were useful indicators of emotional activity and that such activity was accompanied by physiological changes — in heart rate and respiration.
By Saul McLeod , published Carl Jung was an early supporter of Freud because of their shared interest in the unconscious. When the International Psychoanalytical Association formed in Jung became president at the request of Freud. The following year this led to an irrevocable split between them and Jung went on to develop his own version of psychoanalytic theory. Most of Jung's assumptions of his analytical psychology reflect his theoretical differences with Freud. Jung disagreed with Freud regarding the role of sexuality.
Theory of the Libido
Jung and Literary Theory pp Cite as. I started this book with the metaphor of romance in order to suggest a new relationship between the psychology of C. Jung and modern literary theories after poststructuralism. Theoretical approaches such as feminism and postcolonialism can make very necessary criticisms of the cultural biases deeply embedded in Jungian ideas. At the same, time I would argue that Jungian theory has been an unjustly neglected resource in the development of literary studies. This final chapter aims to review the results of the romance between Jung and literary theory posited in the foregoing pages.
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