Solar Position Control And Automatic Power Distribution System Pdf

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Solar irradiation is a green and sustainable renewable energy source which is largely harnessed through photovoltaic and thermal cell surfaces.

Electric Power Distribution Handbook Pdf any person by any act or omission, due to the information contained in this handbook.

Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis.

For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism.

These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is During the last few years the renewable energy sources like solar energy have gained much importance in all over the world.

Different types of renewable or green energy resources like hydropower, wind power, and biomass energy are currently being utilized for the supply of energy demand. Among the conventional renewable energy sources, solar energy is the most essential and prerequisite resource of sustainable energy [ 1 , 2 ]. A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power. The physics of the PV cell solar cell is very similar to the classical p-n junction diode.

Sunlight is composed of photons or particles of solar energy. Semiconductor materials within the PV cell absorb sunlight which knocks electrons from their atoms, allowing electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity [ 3 , 4 ].

Because of its cleanliness, ubiquity, abundance, and sustainability, solar energy has become well recognized and widely utilized [ 5 ]. Different researches estimate that covering 0. This proves the potential of solar energy which in turn points out the necessity of tracking mechanism in solar systems.

The tracking mechanism is an electromechanical system that ensures solar radiation is always perpendicular to the surface of the photovoltaic cells solar cells which maximizes energy harnessing [ 7 ].

Over the years, researchers have developed smart solar trackers for maximizing the amount of energy generation. Before the introduction of solar tracking methods, static solar panels were positioned with a reasonable tilted angle based on the latitude of the location.

There are mainly two types of solar trackers on the basis of their movement degrees of freedoms. These are single axis solar tracker and dual axis solar tracker.

Again these two systems are further classified on the basis of their tracking technologies. Active, passive, and chronological trackers are three of them [ 9 , 10 ]. But the earth follows a complex motion that consists of the daily motion and the annual motion.

The daily motion causes the sun to appear in the east to west direction over the earth whereas the annual motion causes the sun to tilt at a particular angle while moving along east to west direction [ 12 ]. Figure 1 shows the daily and annual motion of the sun. They are 1 the solar altitude angle and 2 the solar azimuth angle.

An ideal tracker would allow the solar modules to point towards the sun, compensating for both changes in the altitude angle of the sun throughout the day and latitudinal offset of the sun during seasonal changes. So the maximum efficiency of the solar panel is not being used by single axis tracking system whereas double axis tracking would ensure a cosine effectiveness of one.

In active tracking or continuous tracking, the position of the sun in the sky during the day is continuously determined by sensors. The sensors will trigger the motor or actuator to move the mounting system so that the solar panels will always face the sun throughout the day.

If the sunlight is not perpendicular to the tracker, then there will be a difference in light intensity on one light sensor compared to another. This difference can be used to determine in which direction the tracker has to be tilted in order to be perpendicular to the sun. This method of sun tracking is reasonably accurate except on very cloudy days when it is hard for the sensors to determine the position of the sun in the sky [ 14 ].

Passive tracker, unlike an active tracker which determines the position of the sun in the sky, moves in response to an imbalance in pressure between two points at both ends of the tracker. However, this method of sun tracking is not accurate [ 15 , 16 ]. A chronological tracker is a time-based tracking system where the structure is moved at a fixed rate throughout the day as well for different months.

This method of sun tracking is more energy efficient [ 17 ]. Hence, the power gain from this system is very high [ 18 ]. But to achieve this power gain the system uses two different motors continuously for two different axes.

As a result it always consumes a certain amount of extra power compared to time-based tracking system. Therefore to reduce this power loss a combination of active and time-based tracking could be the suitable alternative to this system.

Finally the motivation of the research was to design and implement a hybrid dual axis solar tracking system which reduces the motor power consumption while tracking accurately. A simple energy efficient and rugged tracking model is presented in this paper in order to build a hybrid dual axis solar tracker. The light intensity is compared by microcontroller and it generates the suitable control signals to move the motors in proper direction. So a driver circuit is used to increase the voltage and current level for the operation of the motors.

Two full geared stepper motors are used for rotating the solar module in two different axes. A versatile mechanical system is introduced as a linear actuator to create proper tilt angle. In addition, this linear actuator has high weight lifting capability which is observed experimentally. It is found that energy efficient hybrid dual axis tracking yields almost same energy as continuous dual axis solar tracking system.

This mechanism proved significant benefit of reducing energy consumption by hybrid tracker sacrificing a very little tracking loss. The whole work involves the reading of different sensor values and then comparing them digitally to determine the exact position of the sun in east-west direction. In order to simplify the design and implementation process the whole system is divided into two parts.

These are as follows: A mechanical system design; B electrical circuit design. A Mechanical System Design. Assembling the mechanical system was the most challenging part of this system because the objective was to make an energy efficient solar tracking system which demanded intelligent operations of the tracking motors.

Generally one of these motors is used for daily tracking east-west motion and other for making a seasonal tracking north-south motion. So the daily tracking motor operates continuously based on light sensors and the annual motion tracking motor operates only a few times over the year. So for design and implementation process the whole mechanical system is mainly divided into three parts as follows: 1 linear actuator; 2 panel carrier; 3 panel carrier rotator.

A linear actuator converts circular motion to a linear vertical motion in contrast to the circular motion of a conventional electric motor.

The linear vertical motion is used for creating the seasonal angle of the sun. In this tracking system linear actuator consists of one stepper motor, screw thread, bolt, bearing, circular rod, and some pieces of wood. Figure 2 shows the mechanical design and structure of linear actuator. Experimentally it is found that this mechanical structure has a special feature of high weight lifting using a low power stepper motor. Linear actuator gives the linear motion in vertical axis upward and downward and is connected to one end of panel carrier through a straight single rod hook.

The rod hook is attached to the wooden frame. A bolt is attached in the middle of the wooden frame and this bolt is also tied with the screw thread. Four circular rods are also mortised through the wooden frame. The wooden frame moves up and down along with the bolt and the single rod hook. It works in such a way that the wooden frame does not let the bolt move along with the thread screw rather when the thread screw moves then the four circular rods mortised into the wooden frame cause the bolt to move up or down.

Now when the single rod hook moves upward or downward it moves along with the panel carrier. The two ends of screw thread are placed in two bearings which helps it to rotate smoothly.

These bearings are mortised into the roof and floor. One gear is also placed at the bottom of the screw thread and this gear is connected to the stepper motor gear which is placed on the floor of the linear actuator body. The floor and roof of the linear actuator are made of wood which holds all the linear actuator instruments. Panel carrier is basically a rectangular frame made of aluminum which holds the solar panel with the help of a circular rod.

One end of the horizontal base of the panel carrier is attached with the single rod hook of linear actuator and other with the panel carrier rotator. Figure 3 shows the design and implementation of panel carrier. A stepper motor with a gear is placed on the body of the aluminium frame.

The light sensors are placed at the two ends of solar panel. Again the rectangular aluminium frame has a rectangular mortise in its horizontal base. Single circular rod hook from linear actuator goes through this mortise. While the linear actuator lifts one end of panel carrier the other end needs to be fixed with a panel carrier rotator to get the perfect circular motion. Panel carrier rotator is used to hold one end of the horizontal base of the solar panel carrier.

One screw thread, gear, and position sensors are used in this panel carrier rotator to give a circular movement to the panel carrier. Its base is fixed on a wooden floor. Figure 4 shows the design and implementation of panel carrier rotator and Figure 5 shows the experimental setup of the hybrid dual axis solar tracker. B Electrical Circuit Design. The whole electrical system is mainly divided into three units.

These are sensor unit, control unit, and movement adjustment unit. Sensor unit senses three different parameters light, time, and position and converts it to appropriate electrical signals. Then the electrical signals from sensor unit are sent to control unit.

Control unit determines the direction of the movement of the motors both in the horizontal and vertical axes. Finally the movement adjustment unit adjusts the position of the solar module by receiving signal from the control unit. This adjustment is done by using two geared unipolar stepper motors. Figure 6 shows the overall block diagram of the whole system.

The sensor unit consists of three sensor circuits. These are as follows: a light sensor; b real time clock; c position sensor.

Power System Analysis And Control Pdf

This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system.

A version of the article first appeared in a blog by mounting provider Solar FlexRack. Solar trackers are rising in popularity, but not everyone understands the complete benefits and potential drawbacks of the system. Solar panel tracking solutions are a more advanced technology for mounting photovoltaic panels. Stationary mounts, which hold panels in a fixed position, can have their productivity compromised when the sun passes to a less-than-optimal angle. Overall, solar trackers are highly efficient installations and are a great fit for both large and small project sites given the proper location and site conditions. All great questions.

A photovoltaic system , also PV system or solar power system , is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics. It consists of an arrangement of several components, including solar panels to absorb and convert sunlight into electricity, a solar inverter to convert the output from direct to alternating current , as well as mounting , cabling , and other electrical accessories to set up a working system. It may also use a solar tracking system to improve the system's overall performance and include an integrated battery solution , as prices for storage devices are expected to decline. Strictly speaking, a solar array only encompasses the ensemble of solar panels, the visible part of the PV system, and does not include all the other hardware, often summarized as balance of system BOS. As PV systems convert light directly into electricity, they are not to be confused with other solar technologies, such as concentrated solar power or solar thermal , used for heating and cooling.

Power System Analysis And Control Pdf

Solar Tracker System. JPL's Horizons system description and related links. Science is kid's play: Online games for school breaks or anytime at all. It is a cluster of solar cells arranged in matrix. For residential, farm or larger commercial installations, AllEarth sun tracking solar panels are high-end, high-efficiency solar solutions.

A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including:. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid. Roll-out of smart grid technology also implies a fundamental re-engineering of the electricity services industry, although typical usage of the term is focused on the technical infrastructure. The first alternating current power grid system was installed in in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In the 20th century local grids grew over time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons.

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