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Student teaching has ended. Suddenly you are standing in what will be your classroom for the next year and after the excitement of decorating it wears off and you begin lesson planning, you start to notice all of your lessons are executed the same way, just with different material.
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- Teaching Methods
- Teaching Methods and Strategies: The Complete Guide
In the process of scaffolding, the teacher helps the student master a task or concept that the student is initially unable to grasp independently.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter discusses several methods of teaching science within the traditional formats: lectures, discussion sessions, and laboratories.
How can you help your students learn science better and more efficiently in each format? Although there is no universal best way to teach, experience shows that some general principles apply American Association for the Advancement of Science, a; McDermott et al.
Help students to develop a conceptual framework as well as to develop problem solving skills. Assess student understanding at frequent intervals throughout the learning process. Evidence from a number of disciplines suggests that oral presentations to large groups of passive students contribute very little to real learning. In physics, standard lectures do not help most students develop conceptual understanding of fundamental processes in electricity and in mechanics Arons, ; McDermott and Shaffer, ; McDermott et al.
Similarly, student grades in a large general chemistry lecture course do not correlate with the lecturing skills and experience of the instructor Birk and Foster, Despite the limitations of traditional lectures, many institutions are forced to offer high-enrollment introductory science courses. Many professors who teach these courses feel that lecturing is their only option, and can only dream of what they could accomplish in smaller classes. However, there is a small but growing group of science faculty members who have developed ways to engage students in the process of thinking, questioning, and problem solving despite the large class size.
Strategies in use in introductory courses in biology and geology are described in the sidebars. Although many of the methods described in these sidebars are consistent with what experts know about how students learn see Chapter 3 , they may not be welcomed by all of the students in a class. There are several ways to help students make the transition from passive listeners to active participants in their own learning Orzechowksi, :. One important tool I use to engage students is to create opportunities for thought and for active pursuit of an unknown during the class session.
If I give a lecture for which I provide notes-a common practice-I always leave blanks in critical parts of the notes. On the board or transparency, I indicate the unknown. I pause while I talk about it, drawing the students' attention to the hole in the notes. If possible, I ask for suggested answers or for a vote among the possibilities.
By arranging the pause in your lecture you can give the students the chance to puzzle out the question themselves and to preview their ability to work on the questions independently. And only by attending class can a student gain all the information-an important draw to encourage class attendance. In teaching formal genetics, I draw out a genetic cross first in general form in this example, a Drosophila eye color inheritance test :.
Then I put into the lecture notes-a completely blank Punnett square to show the structure of the approach-but not to provide the answer. The students encounter this as an unknown, because I address the contents of each line, and each box, as a question. Everybody, consult with your neighbor for a minute-now second row, anybody tell me, what should be in these two blanks at the top?
What would be the genotype and phenotype for the bottom right box? I show examples of geology from my own experiences, and occasionally include a few funny slides or video or audio clips to lighten things up. I use a multimedia presentation system composed of a vertical camera above an illuminated table on which I write or place rocks, examples from the book, or anything else I want the students to see. The video signal is projected on a screen in the classroom.
This form of presentation has worked well and definitely has improved students' access to the material by making things more visible. Along with the presentation system, I use a laser disc containing movies and photographs from a textbook publisher. I can easily switch from multimedia to laser disc output and thus weave visual examples into my lecture. Occasionally, I show the students computer files or video from a VHS player. The students react well to this multimedia approach, but to involve the students I have them do a short exercise in groups, then we talk about it.
For these, I walk up the side of the auditorium and designate even and odd rows. Then I say that the even people should turn around and face the odd people and do the exercise together.
This generates groups of people. They all put their names onto the single sheet they are to turn in. Then the students work together on a question for minutes. I walk around the room, answering their questions. When time is up, the TA stands at the overhead projector, and I walk through the crowd I have a lapel mike so they can hear me , collecting their answers for each question.
Then we talk about solutions. Usually the time runs out, and the students turn their papers. Of course, they get credit for their participation, and that provides some motivation, but I am sure students understand the concepts better than if they were presented only in my lecture. This process engages the students. Of course the hub-bub grows as the students move from the assigned topic to other conversations, but they come back fairly quickly.
It is a bit unnerving because there is the potential for loss of control in the class, but the students seem to either like it or are indifferent, but certainly aren't quite as passive as they are while being lectured at. Anticipate students' anxiety, and be prepared to provide support and encouragement as they adapt to your expectations. Discuss your approach with colleagues, especially if you are teaching a well-established course in a pre-professional curriculum. When lecturing is the chosen or necessary teaching method, one way to keep students engaged is to pause periodically to assess student understanding or to initiate short student discussions see sidebars.
Calling on individual students to answer questions or offer comments can also hold student attention; however, some students prefer a feedback method with more anonymity.
If they have an opportunity to discuss a question in small groups, the group can offer an answer, which removes any one student from the spotlight. Another option is to have students write their answer on an index card, and pass the card to the end of the row; the student seated there can select one answer to present, without disclosing whose it is.
The literature on teaching and learning contains other examples of techniques to maintain students' attention in a lecture setting Eble, ; Davis, ; Lowman, ; McKeachie, :. Avoid direct repetition of material in a textbook so that it remains a useful alternative resource. Adopt a reasonable and adjustable pace that balances content coverage and student understanding.
Consider using slides, videos, films, CD-ROMs, and computer simulations to enhance presentations, but remember that:. Students need time to summarize their observations and to draw and note conclusions. At the beginning of a course, discuss with your students several strategies for effectively engaging in and learning from your classes.
Some may just listen, others will take notes, and still others may try to transcribe your words. Some students may want to tape the class session. If you want to encourage a particular form of student participation, make clear your expectations, the reasons for them, and how students' learning will benefit.
Whether in lecture, discussion sections, laboratories, or individual encounters, questioning is an important part of guiding students' learning. When students ask questions, they are often seeking to shortcut the learning process by getting the right answer from an authority figure. However, it is the processes of arriving at an answer and assessing the validity of an answer that are usually more important, particularly if the student can apply these processes to the next question.
Both of these processes are obscured if the teacher simply gives the requested answer. Often, the Socratic method-meeting a student's question with another perhaps leading question-forces students while often frustrating them to offer possible answers, supporting reasons, and assessments. In fact, posing questions can be an effective teaching technique.
Here are some tips for the effective use of questions:. Wait long enough to indicate that you expect students to think before answering. Some students know that if they are silent the professor will give the answer Rowe, Solicit alternative answers or elaboration to provide material for comparison, contrast, and assessment. Solicit additional responses from the same students with a leading question or follow-up observation.
Direct the ensuing discussion to the comparison, evaluation, and extension of the offered answers rather than simple validation or refutation of right and wrong answers. Even a small-scale demonstration can work in a large class if it uses an everyday object that students recognize, and especially if it is something the students can find and use on their own.
My favorite example is to use a telephone cord to demonstrate supercoiling of DNA. The phone cord has its own intrinsic helicity, as does DNA, though usually phone cords are left handed whereas DNA is most often discussed in its right handed B form.
Who doesn't have the experience of having the coiled headset cord of a telephone show supercoils twists around itself? This presents the students with the chance to play at home, where they can convince themselves that the direction handedness of the supercoils depends on the direction of the original helix, and on whether the cord was underwound or overwound before the headset was replaced constraining the ends.
Students learn both an important principle for understanding nucleic acids and a handy practical tip that lets them predict the easiest way to get the kinks out of the phone cord!
They get the chance to test their understanding by making predictions and doing trials-exactly what one hopes for in active scientific learning. A professor's questions should build confidence rather than induce fear. One technique is to encourage the student to propose several different answers to the question.
The student can then be encouraged to step outside the answers and begin to develop the skills necessary to assess the answers. Some questions seek facts and simply measure student recall; others demand higher reasoning skills such as elaborating on or explaining a concept, comparing and contrasting several possibilities, speculating about an outcome, and speculating about cause and effect.
The type of question asked and the response given to students' initial answers are crucial to the types of reasoning processes the students are encouraged to use.
Several aspects of questions to formulate them, what reasoning or knowledge is tested or encouraged, how to deal with answers-similar for dialogue and for testing. Chapters 5 and 6 contain more information on questions as part of assessment, testing, and grading. Demonstrations can be very effective for illustrating concepts in class, but can result in passive learning without careful attention to engaging students. They can provoke students to think for themselves and are especially helpful if the demonstration has a surprise, challenges an assumption, or illustrates an otherwise abstract concept or mechanism.
Demonstrations that use everyday objects are especially effective and require little preparation on the part of faculty see sidebar. Students' interest is peaked if they are asked to make predictions and vote on the most probable outcome. There are numerous resources available to help faculty design and conduct demonstrations.
Many science education periodicals contain one or more demonstrations in each issue. The American Chemical Society and the University of Wisconsin Press have published excellent books on chemical demonstrations Shakhashiri, , , , ; Summerlin and Ealy, ; Summerlin et al. Similar volumes of physics demonstrations have been published by the American Association of Physics Teachers Freier and Anderson, ; Berry, You should consider a number of issues when planning a demonstration O'Brien, :.
The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area s and school mission statement. Teaching theories can be organized into four categories based on two major parameters: a teacher-centered approach versus a student-centered approach, and high-tech material use versus low-tech material use. Interested in developing your skills as a teacher? Explore online education short courses designed to give you an in depth understanding of various skills in teaching. Taken to its most extreme interpretation, teachers are the main authority figure in a teacher-centered instruction model.
Theresa Ebiere Dorgu. International Journal of Secondary Education. Abstract: The paper focused on the teaching methods as a panacea for effective curriculum implementation in the classroom in Nigeria. Teaching methods aids learning and help to communicate ideas and skills to the students. There are several teaching methods to use in the classrooms, it is left for the teacher to use the ones most appropriate for the lesson. These methods if properly used will enhance teaching and learning and bring about desired changes in the students.
Instructional methods to consider when planning your lesson include: METHOD biblebelieverspentecostal.org student- biblebelieverspentecostal.org%20files/Cubę%20Templat e.pdf.
Teaching Methods and Strategies: The Complete Guide
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter discusses several methods of teaching science within the traditional formats: lectures, discussion sessions, and laboratories. How can you help your students learn science better and more efficiently in each format? Although there is no universal best way to teach, experience shows that some general principles apply American Association for the Advancement of Science, a; McDermott et al.
As quoted and adopted from: Saskatchewan Education. Planning a unit or lesson involves a number of instructional decisions. The teacher must identify the following: the content and processes to be addressed, the strengths, needs, and interests of students, the Common Essential Learnings that could be incorporated, and the most effective instructional approaches.
While a classroom lecture is perhaps the image most commonly associated with direct instruction, the term encompasses a wide variety of fundamental teaching techniques and potential instructional scenarios.
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- Этим ты лишь усугубишь свое положе… - Он не договорил и произнес в трубку: - Безопасность. Говорит коммандер Тревор Стратмор. У нас в шифровалке человек взят в заложники. Быстро пришлите сюда людей. Да, да, прямо. К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор. Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников.
Стопроцентный бестселлер. Она засмеялась. - Сам удивишься. Дэвид сунул руку в карман халата и вытащил маленький предмет. - Закрой. У меня есть кое-что для. Она зажмурилась.
Массажистка быстро убрала руки из-под полотенца. В дверях появилась телефонистка и поклонилась: - Почтенный господин. - Слушаю. Телефонистка отвесила еще один поклон: - Я говорила с телефонной компанией. Звонок был сделан из страны с кодом один - из Соединенных Штатов. Нуматака удовлетворенно мотнул головой. Хорошая новость.
Ни для кого не было секретом, что Мидж Милкен недолюбливала Тревора Стратмора. Стратмор придумал хитроумный ход, чтобы приспособить Попрыгунчика к нуждам агентства, но его схватили за руку. Несмотря ни на что, АН Б это стоило больших денег. Фонд электронных границ усилил свое влияние, доверие к Фонтейну в конгрессе резко упало, и, что еще хуже, агентство перестало быть анонимным. Внезапно домохозяйки штата Миннесота начали жаловаться компаниям Америка онлайн и Вундеркинд, что АНБ, возможно, читает их электронную почту, - хотя агентству, конечно, не было дела до рецептов приготовления сладкого картофеля.
Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло. PFEESESNRETMMFHAIRWEOOIGMEENNRMА ENETSHASDCNSIIAAIEERBRNKFBLELODI Джабба взорвался: - Довольно. Игра закончена. Червь ползет с удвоенной скоростью.
Это как раз было ее специальностью. - Дело в том, что это и есть ключ. Энсей Танкадо дразнит нас, заставляя искать ключ в считанные минуты.
- А если ему нужна помощь. Стратмор пожал плечами. - Отсюда я не в состоянии ему помочь - ему придется полагаться лишь на .
А мне без разницы. - Панк не понимал, к чему клонит Беккер. Пестрое сборище пьяных и накачавшихся наркотиками молодых людей разразилось истерическим хохотом. Двухцветный встал и с презрением посмотрел на Беккера.
Консульство этого так не оставит. - Надеюсь. - Месье Клушар. - Беккер улыбнулся и достал из кармана пиджака ручку.
Вылезай скорее! - послышался женский голос. Мидж все же его разыскала. Он застонал.
Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа. В нем ничего не .
Токуген Нуматака воплощал старую Японию, его девиз - Лучше смерть, чем бесчестье. Он ненавидел американцев. Ненавидел американскую еду, американские нравы, но более всего ему было ненавистно то, что американцы железной хваткой держали мировой рынок компьютерных программ. У Стратмора был смелый план - создать всемирный стандарт шифрования с черным ходом для Агентства национальной безопасности. Он страстно желал разделить эту мечту со Сьюзан, осуществить ее с ней вместе, но знал, что это невозможно.
Он задерживается. ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан. - С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да.
Ты нужна. Яростная волна гнева захлестнула. Она снова услышала голос Дэвида: Я люблю. Беги. Внезапный прилив энергии позволил ей освободиться из объятий коммандера.
Конец лета. Солнце уже зашло.