File Name: effects of citrus fragrance on immune function and depressive states .zip
- Effects of odor on emotion, with implications
- On the effect of aromatherapy with citrus fragrance in the therapy of major depressive disorder
- What You Need to Know About Lemon Essential Oil
- Olfactory Influences on Mood and Autonomic, Endocrine, and Immune Function
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Lemon essential oil is a completely natural ingredient that also serves as a home health remedy.
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Effects of odor on emotion, with implications
The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant.
Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered. Inputs received through the sensory systems, individually or together, can produce emotion and influence cognition LeDoux, ; Rolls, ; Adolphs, Emotions can be elicited by stimuli that are instrumental reinforcers Rolls, For example, the sight of an impending painful stimulus produces the emotional state of fear, and instrumental actions are performed to avoid the stimulus.
Emotional states are generally associated with autonomic responses such as a change in heart rate, and endocrine responses, which are adaptive in that they prepare the body for action. Different reinforcing stimuli arouse different emotional states.
Rewarding stimuli are associated with pleasant subjective states, and punishing stimuli with unpleasant subjective states. Human imaging studies have shown that reinforcing visual, auditory, olfactory and taste stimuli activate brain areas such as the orbitofrontal cortex OFC , and that the activations are linearly correlated with the subjectively reported pleasantness or unpleasantness of the stimuli Phan et al.
Odors may be particularly effective stimuli for the recall of memories including emotional memories Herz, The present review addresses two specific questions. First, what is the evidence for a strong link between odors and emotion? Second, what aspects of olfaction and the olfactory system predispose it to produce emotional responses? I begin by reviewing current definitions of emotion, and current views about the neurobiology of odor perception.
The unique neuroanatomy and corresponding evolutionary history of the mammalian olfactory system Lledo et al. Further, the use of pleasant olfactory stimuli, acting as safety signals or reminders of a safe or pleasant event or place, may be useful in the treatment of psychiatric and related conditions, for example reducing anxiety Lehrner et al. Darwin described expressions and gestures that are associated with emotion in humans and other animals Darwin, Emotions are also associated with adaptive changes of physiological state including heart rate and endocrine responses Darwin, ; LeDoux, ; Rolls, ; Adolphs, ; LeDoux, Emotions can usefully be defined as states elicited by stimuli that are rewards or punishers, that is which have value Rolls, Although Ekman suggested that there is a set of basic emotions, fear, anger, enjoyment, sadness, disgust, and surprise Ekman, , a much larger range of emotions can be accounted for if we take into account the rewarding or punishing effects of many different types of reinforcer, such as the taste of food, pleasant touch or pain, and the sight of a beautiful person or scene.
Humans and non-human animals alike will perform actions to obtain a stimulus which is a reward, and will perform actions to avoid or escape from a punisher, and these reinforced actions are fundamental to survival and reproductive success Rolls, Odor perception can be influenced by learning and memory Wilson and Stevenson, a , b , , for example exposure to wine or beer significantly improves discrimination Owen and Machamer, ; Peron and Allen, The piriform cortex plays a role in odor perception by recoding odor mixtures in such a way that some neurons can respond to an odorant mixture but not to the components Kadohisa and Wilson, b ; Wilson and Sullivan, In particular, the anterior piriform cortex aPC encodes the identity of mixtures of odorants separately from the components, while the posterior piriform cortex pPC encodes the similarity between mixtures and their components Gottfried et al.
The implication is that the aPC enables complex mixtures to be represented separately from their components and from each other, while the pPC may enable generalization to similar odors. Another aspect of odor perception is short or long term habituation. This neurophysiological adaptation may be useful in drawing attention to harmful chemicals in adapted background odor environments. Physiological state influences the perception of odor. For example, the odor of a food will be pleasant during hunger, and its pleasantness will decline as the food is being eaten to satiety Rolls and Rolls, ; Yeshurun and Sobel, This can be a sensory-specific decrease in the pleasantness of the odor of a food eaten to satiety.
In addition, the perception of odors can lead to physiological responses, such as salivation and the release of insulin Lee and Linden, ; Yeomans, ; Savigner et al. Thus physiological state and the effects of odors can interact to influence motivation, for example whether to eat or not.
In addition, odors influence autonomic responses, for example pleasant and novel odors can decrease heart rate Fletcher and Wilson, ; Wilson, , while the more sympathetically arousing the odor, the more the skin conductance response increases Alaoui-Ismaili et al. Thus, odor perception is neurophysiologically modulated by experience to facilitate identification of individual odorants including odor mixtures, and to filter out an odor by adaptation, and is also modified by physiological states such as hunger.
There are two different olfactory systems. In addition, there is an accessory olfactory system with its peripheral receptors located in the vomeronasal organ VNO which projects to the accessory olfactory bulb AOB.
The VNOs of humans and old world monkeys are non-functional Liman and Innan, ; Zhang and Webb, ; Brennan and Zufall, although pheromones play important roles in eliciting social and reproductive behavior. In humans, the MOB may be responsible for pheromone detection Preti et al. Considering the main olfactory system, the glomerular layer of the MOB forms odorant receptor maps which reflect individual odorant molecular features Mori et al.
Odor information reaches the piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex from the MOB. As shown above, the aPC separates representations of odor mixtures from their components. The amygdala and PFC are involved in the processes of emotion including emotion-related learning Zald and Pardo, ; Royet et al.
The MOB and piriform cortex also project to the entorhinal cortex, which in turn projects to the hippocampus where olfactory information can become incorporated into episodic long-term memory Rolls, ; Small et al. Amygdala : The MOB projects directly to the anterior cortical nucleus and medial nucleus of amygdala, and the periamygdaloid cortex in rodents and macaques Turner et al.
The medial nucleus of the amygdala is thought to be a place for inputs from the AOB and MOB of rodents to interact with each other Brennan and Zufall, ; Baum, In addition, the piriform cortex projects directly to the basolateral nucleus of amygdala in both rodents and macaques Carmichael et al. Further, the amygdala projects to the hypothalamus Pitkanen, ; Barbas et al. The amygdala plays a key role in some affective responses to stimuli.
Amygdala-lesioned animals show a lack of reactions such as freezing, and autonomic responses, to a fear conditioned stimulus CS; Weiskrantz, ; Helmstetter, ; Phillips and LeDoux, ; Sananes and Davis, , and show abnormal food preferences including reduced neophobia Rolls and Rolls, ; Murray et al. In addition, the amygdala plays a role in associative learning, for example, some amygdala neurons encode odor cues associated with a positive or negative taste Schoenbaum et al. Hippocampus : The hippocampus receives olfactory information from the amygdala Petrovich et al.
The hippocampus plays a fundamental role in episodic memory Lemogne et al. Hippocampal damage impairs odor-place associative learning, and temporal order memory for odor information Kesner et al. Some neurons in the hippocampus represent the place of odor-related reward Rolls, ; Tort et al. In addition, stimulation of the hippocampus affects autonomic responses, that is, decreases heart rate and blood pressure Ruit and Neafsey, Prefrontal cortex : The primate OFC receives olfactory information from the piriform cortex Carmichael and Price, , the amygdala Amaral and Price, ; Ghashghaei and Barbas, ; Barbas et al.
The OFC associates olfactory with taste, oral texture, and visual inputs, to produce multimodal representations of reward value, such as the reward value of food Rolls, The OFC representations are of the economic value of goods, e.
The reward evaluation performed by the OFC is important in both emotion and in autonomic responses such as heart rate and skin conductance responses Damasio, ; Bechara et al. In addition, the amygdala, OFC, and hippocampus are also involved in the regulation of stress which causes not only psychological and psychiatric but also physiological problems see Mcewen, ; Arnsten, ; Rodrigues et al.
As described below, the olfactory pathways may enable some odorants to influence stress in a therapeutic way. There is evidence that odors elicit emotion and are linked to emotional memory. Responses to odors can include emotions, which can usefully be defined as states elicited by stimuli that are rewards and punishers Rolls, Different odors can elicit individual affective responses which may be pleasant or unpleasant Chrea et al. Emotionally arousing odors may influence cognition and emotion.
Some odors facilitate the recognition of disgust face expressions Seubert et al. In addition, some affective odors modulate psychological and physiological state. Komori and colleagues Komori et al. Green odor emanating from oak leaves is necessary for polyphemus moths to mate Riddiford, , and elicits pleasantness from humans Sano et al. In addition, green odor attenuates the stress-induced elevations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH , body temperature Nakashima et al.
Similarly, rose essential oil inhibits stress-induced skin-barrier disruption and elevation of salivary cortisol in humans Fukada et al. Odors can become associated by learning with reinforcers such as taste in the OFC and amygdala, and this provides a way for previously neutral odors to produce emotional responses Herz et al. Patients frightened by dental treatment respond negatively to the smell of eugenol which is used for treatment Robin et al.
Odor-evoked autobiographical memory is powerful in reminding humans about past emotional experiences Chu and Downes, ; Larsson and Willander, ; Zucco et al. This odor associative memory and learning begins early in life Schaal et al. For examples, the foods eaten by a pregnant mother can influence the odors liked by her offspring Schaal et al.
Further, this associative learning regulates behavior, that is, when animals have learned associations between an odor CS and a negative outcome such as foot shock unconditioned stimulus US , they try to avoid the CS associated with the negative US, or show fear expressions such as freezing Sullivan et al.
The amygdala, OFC and hippocampus are involved in the process of odor-elicited emotion and odor-associated emotional memory. Human imaging studies have demonstrated that the amygdala and OFC are activated by unpleasant or pleasant odors, consistent with their functions in emotion Zald and Pardo, ; Royet et al.
Consistently, activations of the human OFC elicited by odors correlate with the subjective pleasantness or unpleasantness of the odors Rolls, ; Anderson et al. Amygdala lesions impair learned odor preferences in infant rats Sullivan and Wilson, while hippocampus and subiculum lesions in rats produce a deficit in social learning of an odor association Alvarez et al.
In humans, the amygdala and PFC of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD are activated by exposure to the odor related to the traumatic memory Vermetten et al. The odor mapping performed in the aPC may set up representations of odors that are separate, even when considering odorant mixtures and their components Kadohisa and Wilson, b ; Wilson and Sullivan, Human and complementary studies in non-human animals provide evidence that odors evoke emotion and autonomic state via pathways to the amygdala and OFC, and become incorporated into episodic memory via the hippocampus.
In addition, it is suggested that some odorants which elicit emotion may have potential to treat patients with psychological problem such as depression. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. I greatly appreciate comments on an earlier draft of this paper provided by Professor D.
Adolphs, R. Social cognition: feeling voices to recognize emotions. Alaoui-Ismaili, O. Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by autonomic parameters. Senses 22, — Alvarez, P. Hippocampal formation lesions impair performance in an odor-odor association task independently of spatial context. Amaral, D. Amygdalo-cortical projections in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.
On the effect of aromatherapy with citrus fragrance in the therapy of major depressive disorder
Light and smell have both been shown to induce beneficial changes to human psychophysiology. Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on anxiety and depression and smell has also been shown to have positive effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. We developed a method for the delivery of integrated light and smell stimulation to try to optimise positive psychophysiological benefit. We tested its effectiveness on a physiological measure, EEG frontal alpha asymmetry FA and a psychological paradigm, the POMS test, both of which have been used as a measure of emotional state and mood. The effects were greater in the negative FA group. For many years two sensory modalities, sight and smell, when stimulated appropriately, have been shown to have a positive impact on mood and we hypothesised that a combination of light and smell stimuli might have a synergistic effect. Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD is a sub-category of depression or mood disorders, in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience depressive symptoms at a certain time of the year, most commonly in the late autumn and winter.
The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered.
What You Need to Know About Lemon Essential Oil
This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor lavender , one stimulant odor lemon , and a no-odor control water , before and after a stressor cold pressor ; 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits. Experimenters were blind. Self-report and unobtrusive mood measures provided robust evidence that lemon oil reliably enhances positive mood compared to water and lavender regardless of expectancies or previous use of aromatherapy.
The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. This cancer information summary provides an overview of the use of aromatherapy with essential oils primarily to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. This summary includes a brief history of aromatherapy, a review of laboratory studies and clinical trials, and possible adverse effects associated with aromatherapy use. Many of the medical and scientific terms used in the summary are hypertext linked at first use in each section to the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms, which is oriented toward nonexperts.
The augmenting acceptance and application of herbal medicine in prevention and treatment of diseases also involve the use of plant essential oils EOs through different routes of administration aromatherapy. Scientific data supporting the efficacy of certain herbal products are continuously growing; however, the cumulative evidence is not always sufficient. The anti-inflammatory properties of EOs have been investigated more extensively and also reviewed in different settings, but so far, our review is the first to summarize the immune-supporting properties of EOs. Our aim here is to synthesize the currently available data on the immune function enhancing effects of EOs. An online search was conducted in the PubMed database, which was terminated at the end of July
The current treatments for anxiety disorders and depression have multiple adverse effects in addition to a delayed onset of action, which has prompted efforts to find new substances with potential activity in these disorders. Citrus aurantium was chosen based on ethnopharmacological data because traditional medicine refers to the Citrus genus as useful in diminishing the symptoms of anxiety or insomnia, and C.
Olfactory Influences on Mood and Autonomic, Endocrine, and Immune Function
- Давай ключ. Я жду. Бринкерхофф застонал, сожалея, что попросил ее проверить отчет шифровалки. Он опустил глаза и посмотрел на ее протянутую руку. - Речь идет о засекреченной информации, хранящейся в личном помещении директора. Ты только представь себе, что будет, если об этом станет известно. - Директор в Южной Америке.
АНБ сразу же осознало, что возникла кризисная ситуация. Коды, с которыми столкнулось агентство, больше не были шифрами, что разгадывают с помощью карандаша и листка бумаги в клетку, - теперь это были компьютеризированные функции запутывания, основанные на теории хаоса и использующие множественные символические алфавиты, чтобы преобразовать сообщение в абсолютно хаотичный набор знаков. Сначала используемые пароли были довольно короткими, что давало возможность компьютерам АНБ их угадывать. Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр.
Уран и плутоний! - воскликнул Джабба, и в его голосе впервые послышались нотки надежды. - Нам нужно установить разницу между этими элементами. - Он повернулся к бригаде своих помощников. - Кто знает, какая разница между этими элементами.
В ярком свете уличного фонаря на углу Беккер увидел .