Chapter 17 Physical And Cognitive Development In Late Adulthood Pdf

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There are numerous stereotypes regarding older adults as being forgetful and confused, but what does the research on memory and cognition in late adulthood reveal? Memory comes in many types, such as working, episodic, semantic, implicit, and prospective. There are also many processes involved in memory, thus it should not be a surprise that there are declines in some types of memory and memory processes, while other areas of memory are maintained or even show some improvement with age.

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Why do we age? There are many theories that attempt to explain how we age, however, researchers still do not fully understand what factors contribute to the human lifespan Jin, Research on aging is constantly evolving and includes a variety of studies involving genetics, biochemistry, animal models, and human longitudinal studies NIA, a.

According to Jin , modern biological theories of human aging involve two categories. The first is Programmed Theories that follow a biological timetable, possibly a continuation of childhood development.

The second category includes Damage or Error Theories which emphasize environmental factors that cause cumulative damage in organisms. Examples from each of these categories will be discussed. Based on animal models, some genes promote longer life, while other genes limit longevity. Specifically, longevity may be due to genes that better equip someone to survive a disease. For others, some genes may accelerate the rate of aging, while others decrease the rate.

To help determine which genes promote longevity and how they operate, researchers scan the entire genome and compare genetic variants in those who live longer with those who have an average or shorter lifespan. For example, a National Institutes of Health study identified genes possibly associated with blood fat levels and cholesterol, both risk factors for coronary disease and early death NIA, a.

Evolutionary Theory: Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of natural selection; that is, those genes that allow one to survive and reproduce will be more likely to be transmitted to offspring. Consequently, natural selection has not eliminated these damaging disorders from the gene pool. If these detrimental disorders occurred earlier in the development cycle, they may have been eliminated already Gems, Cellular Clock Theory: This theory suggests that biological aging is due to the fact that normal cells cannot divide indefinitely.

This is known as the Hayflick limit and is evidenced in cells studied in test tubes, which divide about times before they stop Bartlett, But what is the mechanism behind this cellular senescence?

At the end of each chromosomal strand is a sequence of DNA that does not code for any particular protein, but protects the rest of the chromosome , which is called a telomere. With each replication, the telomere gets shorter. Once it becomes too short the cell does one of three things. It can stop replicating by turning itself off, called cellular senescence. It can stop replicating by dying , called apoptosis. Or, as in the development of cancer, it can continue to divide and become abnormal.

Senescent cells can also create problems. While they may be turned off, they are not dead, thus they still interact with other cells in the body and can lead to an increased risk of disease. When we are young, senescent cells may reduce our risk of serious diseases such as cancer, but as we age they increase our risk of such problems NIA, a. Understanding why cellular senescence changes from being beneficial to being detrimental are still under investigation.

The answer may lead to some important clues about the aging process. This is usually not a concern as our cells are capable of repairing damage throughout our life. Further, some damage is harmless.

However, some damage cannot be repaired and remains in our DNA. As DNA damage accumulates with increasing age, it can cause cells to deteriorate and malfunction Jin, Factors that can damage DNA include ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoking, and exposure to hydrocarbons, such as auto exhaust and coal Dollemore, Mitochondrial Damage : Damage to mitochondrial DNA can lead to a decaying of the mitochondria, which is a cell organelle that uses oxygen to produce energy from food.

The mitochondria convert oxygen to adenosine triphosphate ATP which provides the energy for the cell. When damaged, mitochondria become less efficient and generate less energy for the cell and can lead to cellular death NIA, a. Free Radicals: When the mitochondria use oxygen to produce energy, they also produce potentially harmful byproducts called oxygen free radicals NIA, a. The free radicals are missing an electron and create instability in surrounding molecules by taking electrons from them.

Before and after photos reveal how stress can play a role in the aging process. To understand how this stress affects aging, researchers note that both problems with the innate and adaptive immune system play a key role. The innate immune system is made up of the skin, mucous membranes, cough reflex, stomach acid, and specialized cells that alert the body of an impending threat. With age these cells lose their ability to communicate as effectively, making it harder for the body to mobilize its defenses.

The adaptive immune system includes the tonsils, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, circulatory system and the lymphatic system that work to produce and transport T cells. T-cells , or lymphocytes , fight bacteria, viruses, and other foreign threats to the body. These cells now remember how to fight a certain infection should the body ever come across this invader again.

Memory cells can remain in your body for many decades, and why the measles vaccine you received as a child is still protecting you from this virus today. As older adults produce fewer new T-cells to be programmed, they are less able to fight off new threats and new vaccines work less effectively.

The reason why the shingles vaccine works well with older adults is that they already have some existing memory cells against the varicella virus. The shingles vaccine is acting as a booster NIA, a. Hormonal Stress Theory , also known as Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging, suggests that as we age the ability of the hypothalamus to regulate hormones in the body begins to decline to lead to metabolic problems American Federation of Aging Research AFAR This decline is linked to an excess of the stress hormone cortisol.

The more stress we experience, the more cortisol released, and the more hypothalamic damage that occurs. Changes in hormones have been linked to several metabolic and hormone-related problems that increase with age, such as diabetes AFAR, , thyroid problems NIH, , osteoporosis, and orthostatic hypotension NIH, a. According to the National Library of Medicine after age 30 people tend to lose lean tissue, and some of the cells of the muscles, liver, kidney, and other organs are lost.

Tissue loss reduces the amount of water in your body and bones may lose some of their minerals and become less dense a condition called osteopenia in the early stages and osteoporosis in the later stages. The amount of body fat goes up steadily after age 30, and older individuals may have almost one third more fat compared to when they were younger.

Fat tissue builds up toward the center of the body, including around the internal organs. Skin, Hair and Nails: With age skin becomes thinner, less elastic, lose fat, and no longer looks plump and smooth.

Veins and bones can be seen easier, and scratches, cuts, and bumps can take longer to heal. Years exposed to the sun may lead to wrinkles, dryness, age spots, and cancer. Older people may bruise more easily, and it can take longer for these bruises to heal. Some medicines or illnesses may also cause bruising. Gravity can cause the skin to sag and wrinkle, and smoking can wrinkle the skin.

They look like flat, brown spots and are often caused by years in the sun. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin that have a raised surface. They become common as people age, especially for women, but both age spots and skin tags are harmless NIA, f.

Height and Weight: The tendency to become shorter as one age occurs among all races and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People typically lose almost one-half inch every 10 years after age 40, and height loss is even more rapid after age A total of 1 to 3 inches in height is lost with aging.

Changes in body weight vary for men and women. Men often gain weight until about age 55, and then begin to lose weight later in life, possibly related to a drop in the male sex hormone testosterone.

Women usually gain weight until age 65, and then begin to lose weight. Weight loss later in life occurs partly because fat replaces lean muscle tissue, and fat weighs less than muscle. Diet and exercise are important factors in weight changes in late adulthood National Library of Medicine, Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle tissue as a natural part of aging. Symptoms include a loss of stamina and weakness, which can decrease physical activity and subsequently further shrink muscles.

Sarcopenia typically happens faster around age 75, but it may also speed up as early as 65 or as late as Factors involved in sarcopenia include a reduction in nerve cells responsible for sending signals to the muscles from the brain to begin moving, a decrease in the ability to turn protein into energy, and not receiving enough calories or protein to sustain adequate muscle mass.

Any loss of muscle is important because it lessens strength and mobility, and sarcopenia is a factor in frailty and the likelihood of falls and fractures in older adults. Maintaining strong leg and heart muscles are important for independence.

Weight-lifting, walking, swimming, or engaging in other cardiovascular exercises can help strengthen the muscles and prevent atrophy. Vision: In late adulthood, all the senses show signs of decline, especially among the oldest-old. In the last chapter, you read about the visual changes that were beginning in middle adulthood, such as presbyopia, dry eyes, and problems seeing in dimmer light.

By later adulthood, these changes are much more common. Three serious eye diseases are more common in older adults: Cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.

Only the first can be effectively cured in most people. Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye. The lens of the eye is made up of mostly water and protein. The protein is precisely arranged to keep the lens clear, but with age, some of the protein starts to clump. As more of the protein clumps together the clarity of the lens is reduced. While some adults in middle adulthood may show signs of cloudiness in the lens, the area affected is usually small enough to not interfere with vision.

Cataracts also cause a discoloration of the lens, tinting it more yellow and then brown, which can interfere with the ability to distinguish colors such as black, brown, dark blue, or dark purple. Macular degeneration does not usually cause total vision loss, but the loss of the central field of vision can greatly impair day-to-day functioning.

There are two types of macular degeneration: dry and wet. The dry type is the most common form and occurs when tiny pieces of a fatty protein called drusen form beneath the retina. Eventually the macular becomes thinner and stops working properly Boyd, This form is caused by abnormal development of blood vessels beneath the retina.

Life-Span Development

Why do we age? There are many theories that attempt to explain how we age, however, researchers still do not fully understand what factors contribute to the human lifespan Jin, Research on aging is constantly evolving and includes a variety of studies involving genetics, biochemistry, animal models, and human longitudinal studies NIA, a. According to Jin , modern biological theories of human aging involve two categories. The first is Programmed Theories that follow a biological timetable, possibly a continuation of childhood development. The second category includes Damage or Error Theories which emphasize environmental factors that cause cumulative damage in organisms. Examples from each of these categories will be discussed.

12.1: Chapter 28- Physical Development in Late Adulthood

Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults.

Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood.

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Free copies are not available at this time. Please contact your representative if you would like to reserve your free copy. Still Have Questions? Contact your Rep s. With the McGraw Hill eBook, students can access their digital textbook on the web or go offline via the ReadAnywhere app for phones or tablets. See tabs below to explore options and pricing. Don't forget, we accept financial aid and scholarship funds in the form of credit or debit cards.

Why do we age? There are many theories that attempt to explain how we age, however, researchers still do not fully understand what factors contribute to the human lifespan Jin, Research on aging is constantly evolving and includes a variety of studies involving genetics, biochemistry, animal models, and human longitudinal studies NIA, a. According to Jin , modern biological theories of human aging involve two categories. The first is Programmed Theories that follow a biological timetable, possibly a continuation of childhood development. The second category includes Damage or Error Theories which emphasize environmental factors that cause cumulative damage in organisms.

chapter 20 socioemotional development in late adulthood

Instructors: choose ebook for fast access or receive a print copy. Still Have Questions? Contact your Rep s. With the McGraw Hill eBook, students can access their digital textbook on the web or go offline via the ReadAnywhere app for phones or tablets. See tabs below to explore options and pricing. Don't forget, we accept financial aid and scholarship funds in the form of credit or debit cards.

1 Response
  1. Alessia L.

    We have seen that, over the course of their lives, most individuals are able to develop secure attachments; reason cognitively, socially and morally; and create families and find appropriate careers.

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