# Power Triangle And Power Factor Pdf

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Published: 30.04.2021

## True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

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## True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

A power factor of less than one indicates the voltage and current are not in phase, reducing the average product of the two. Real power is the instantaneous product of voltage and current and represents the capacity of the electricity for performing work. Apparent power is the product of RMS current and voltage. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power may be greater than the real power. A negative power factor occurs when the device which is normally the load generates power, which then flows back towards the source. In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system, and require larger wires and other equipment.

## Calculating Power Factor

Real Power Adjacent Side W. Power Factor Angle q [Max 90]. Angle q.

We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called true power , and it is measured in watts symbolized by the capital letter P, as always. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance, reactance, and impedance all using scalar quantities :. True power, reactive power, and apparent power for a purely resistive load.

The prior section revealed that the phase angle between the current and voltage cannot be ignored when computing power. For example, if a volt RMS source delivers 2 amps of current, it appears that it delivers watts. This is only true if the load is purely resistive.

When expressed as a fraction, this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and hypotenuse sides of a right triangle, respectively, the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. Using values from the last example circuit :.

*Instantaneous power in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit. In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform , results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as active power more commonly called real power to avoid ambiguity especially in discussions of loads with non-sinusoidal currents.*

We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power.

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Power Triangle is the representation of a right angle triangle showing the relation between active power, reactive power and apparent power.