File Name: main parts of engine and its function .zip
Just like humans in order to move, your engine requires energy. In fact, the core responsibility of the engine is to transform energy from fuel with a spark, to create the power to move. This internal combustion creates tiny, contained explosions to produce movement.
- Car Engine Parts
- List of Car Engine Parts: Its Function (With Pictures)
- What are the main parts of an engine?
Car Engine Parts
In this post, we will discuss the engine parts. The engine has two types one is the internal combustion engine and another one is the external combustion engine. The engine most essential part of automobile industries or we can say that the engine is the heart of an automobile. The function and construction of each engine parts of an internal combustion engine are explained.
The key to the engine is as follows. Fig shows a simple sketch of the cylinder block. Cylinder block, cylinder head and crankcase these three parts form the foundation and main stationary body of the automobile engine. Another type of engine parts is cylinder head it is joint between the cylinder head and cylinder block. Depending upon the valve and port layout, the cylinder head may be classified into three types as follows:.
This arrangement gives better performance, but it is costlier. The oil pan and the lower part of the cylinder block together are called the crankcase. It is the bottom portion of the cylinder block, in which the crankshaft is fitted. The bottom half of the crankcase is called the oil pan or sump. It is attached to the crankcase through set screws and with a gasket to make the joint leak proof. The oil pan serves as a reservoir for the storage, cooling and ventilation of engine lubricating oil.
At the bottom of the oil sump, a drain plug is provided to drain out the dirty oil at the time of oil replacement. Generally, the sump is made of pressed steel sheet or aluminium alloy casting is used. There are separate sets of pipes attached to the cylinder head which carry the air-fuel mixture and the exhaust gases, these are called manifolds. It is generally made of cast iron so that it is able to withstand the high temperature of the exhaust gases.
These are cylindrical shapes used in the cylinders to avoid the problem of cylinder wear. It is one of the most important functional parts to make up the interior of an engine. These can be replaced after they are worn out. These are made of special alloy iron containing silicon, manganese, nickel and chromium.
Usually, these are cast centrifugally. These liners resistance to wear and corrosion. These liners are of the oil hardening type and offer considerably longer life for the engine. Construction: The construction of a dry liner is shown in the figure. This liner is made in the shape of a barrel with a flange at the top which keeps it into position.
The entire outer surface bears against the cylinder block casting and hence these are it be machined accurately at both outer and inner faces. The liner should not be too loose, otherwise, the heat dissipation becomes poor because of the absence of good contact with the cylinder block.
The figure shows a simple sketch of the wet liner. These liners will be in direct contact with the cooling water at their outer face. Thus, these liners need not be machined very accurately at the outer surface. However, they have been machined accurately at the inner surface. They are resisting corrosion with continuous contact with cooling water.
Pitons are most important engine parts compared to others. The piston is a cylindrical plug that moves up and down in the cylinder. It helps to convert pressure energy obtained by the combustion of fuel into useful mechanical power and it transfer this power to the crankshaft through the connecting rod. It is provided with pistons ring about 3 to 5 provide a good seal between the cylinder wall and piston. The efficiency and economy of the engine primarily depend on the working of the piston.
The piston is usually small in diameter than the bore of the cylinder. The space between the cylinder and the cylinder wall is called the piston clearance.
This piston clearance provides a space for a layer of lubricant between the piston and cylinder wall to reduce friction. It prevents piston seizure due to high temperature. If there is on clearance then it is not possible to reciprocate piston inside the cylinder.
The important types of the piston as follows. The piston rings are fitted into the grooves of the piston to maintain a good seal between the piston and the cylinder wall. The number of piston rings used is about 2 to 4 compression rings and 1 to 2 oil control ring was used but in modern design the number if rings usually three out of which one is the oil control ring.
Chromium plated rings are also used for the top ring, which is subjected to the highest working temperatures and the corrosive action of the combustion products. The main function of the connecting rod is to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crankshaft. The piston pin is also called wrist pin or gudgeon pin. It is used for connecting the small end of the connecting rod and the piston.
Fig a shown Set screw type piston pin , This pin is fastened to the piston to the piston by a SET SCREW such that the connecting rod end swivel has required by the combined reciprocating and rotary motion of the piston and crankshaft.
Fig b shown the Semi-floating piston pin , It is fastened to the connecting rod with a clamp screw. Fig c shown Fully floating piston pin. The pin floats in both the piston bosses and the small end of connecting rod. It is prevented from coming in contact with the cylinder wall by two circlips. The crankshaft is the engine component from which the power is taken.
It is one of the main power transmission sources in all engine parts. The Crankshaft is the first part of the power transmission system in which the reciprocating motion of the piston is converted into the rotating motion with the help of connecting rod.
The rear end of the crankshaft carries flywheel. The flywheel tends to keep the crankshaft running at constant. Next, to the rear end, the main journal and oil seal is fitted. In some engine, oil return threads are provided which return the lubricating oil to the sump.
A camshaft is a shaft on which cams are mounted. A cam is a device that changes the rotary motion of the camshaft into the linear motion of the follower. A camshaft is responsible for the opening of the valves. Engine valves are essential to control the timing of air-fuel mixture entry into the cylinder and combustion products out of the cylinders. This is the most widely used valve in automobile engines. The poppet valve is given the name because of its motion of popping up and down.
The sleeve is in continuous motion and admits and drives out the gases by virtue of the periodic coincidence of port cut in the sleeve with ports formed through the main cylinder casting. Fig showed a simple sketch of Rotary Valve. There are many types of rotary valves. The figure shows the disc type rotary valve. It consists of a rotating disc which has a port. While rotating, it communicates s alternately with the inlet and exhaust manifolds.
The materials used for inlet and exhaust valve are generally different because of the different operating conditions to which valves are subjected. Silico-chrome steel is the material generally used for inlet valves. For exhaust valves molybdenum as added to the silico-chrome. The recent materials for exhaust valve are austenite steel and precipitation hardening steel is generally used. In petrol engines, the carburettor control both air and fuel supply to the engine cylinder under speed and load conditions.
They vary the supply of air-fuel mixture to meet the given condition. But in the diesel engine, the governor is used to keep the engine speed within limits. Without a governor, the engine speed increases at lighter loads and the dynamic stresses damage the engine parts. The governor which is set for a particular engine speed operates a mechanism such that more fuel is injected to increase the engine power. Governor, in this case, operates the mechanism to reduce the supply of fuel in the engine.
It is essential to keep the engine speed within limits. Download PDF. Email Address. The cylinder head cast integrally with cylinder blocks also be done in a few cases usually in racing cars to obtain a gas-tight joint.
Types of integral heads have advantages over integral construction. However, some heavy-duty engines require higher cooling rates such as copper alloys that can be used in racing cars. To form a seal for the high pressures gases from the combustion chamber entering into the crankcase. The piston ring provides easy passage for heat flow from the piston crown to the cylinder walls.
Thanks for this detailed material on automobile components. You really explained it in very simple and understandable manner. Please can I also get the PDF material via my email?? I appreciate greatly your knowledge sharing. I wish you more success on your repair jobs!!
List of Car Engine Parts: Its Function (With Pictures)
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. The internal combustion engine is perhaps the most common example of a heat engine, in which heat from the combustion of a fuel causes rapid pressurisation of the gaseous combustion products in the combustion chamber, causing them to expand and drive a piston , which turns a crankshaft. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air , and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors , like myosins in muscles , use chemical energy to create forces and ultimately motion. The word engine derives from Old French engin , from the Latin ingenium —the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults , trebuchets and battering rams , were called siege engines , and knowledge of how to construct them was often treated as a military secret. The word gin , as in cotton gin , is short for engine.
What are the main parts of an engine?
In this post, we will discuss the engine parts. The engine has two types one is the internal combustion engine and another one is the external combustion engine. The engine most essential part of automobile industries or we can say that the engine is the heart of an automobile.
In this type of engine, the combustion of the fuel occurred inside the engine. And produced thrust which applies to some components of the Engine. Also, this thrust or force produces a vertical or horizontal movement on the components.
Get to Know Your Engine
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