File Name: anatomy and physiology of brain and spinal cord .zip
- Brain 101: An Overview of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain
- Spinal cord
- How the spinal cord works
Spinal Cord Injury Model System. What does the spinal cord do?
Brain 101: An Overview of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain
It also integrates sensory impulses and information to form perceptions, thoughts, and memories. The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: The cerebrum , with its cerebral cortex, gives us conscious control of our actions. The diencephalon mediates sensations, manages emotions, and commands whole internal systems. The cerebellum adjusts body movements, speech coordination, and balance, while the brain stem relays signals from the spinal cord and directs basic internal functions and reflexes. The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain or prosencephalon. Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world.
The CNS is crucial to the operation of the body, and any compromise in the brain and spinal cord can lead to severe difficulties. The function of the tissue in the CNS is crucial to the survival of the organism, so the contents of the blood cannot simply pass into the central nervous tissue. To protect the brain and spinal cord from external injuries due to physical trauma and internal damage caused by the toxins and pathogens that may be traveling through the blood stream, there are various protective structures surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The cranial bones and vertebrae are obvious structures that protect the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord from external trauma. There are other internal structures, however, that play a large role in protecting and maintaining homeostasis of nervous tissue.
The central nervous system CNS controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the center of our thoughts, the interpreter of our external environment, and the origin of control over body movement. Like a central computer, it interprets information from our eyes sight , ears sound , nose smell , tongue taste , and skin touch , as well as from internal organs such as the stomach. The spinal cord is the highway for communication between the body and the brain. When the spinal cord is injured, the exchange of information between the brain and other parts of the body is disrupted.
The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue , which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system CNS. In humans , the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone , passing through the foramen magnum and entering the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae. The spinal cord extends down to between the first and second lumbar vertebrae , where it ends. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex.
impulses between motor areas of the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. Some of the other functions that relay through the midbrain include reflexes for the head.
How the spinal cord works
The brain is a fascinating and complex organ. It is responsible for senses, movement and control, emotions and feelings, language and communication, thinking and memory. Research of the brain and understanding the inner workings of the brain will help us to learn about the mechanisms of certain neurological conditions, including hydrocephalus.
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. More and more physicians are concerning themselves with medical history, and to an increasing extent specialty boards require that candidates possess some historical knowledge in their specialty. There is a vast array of so-called secondary sources—what has been written about the important historical figures or events. All too neglected have been the primary sources, the writings of the historical figures themselves. A good anthology of primary sources is highly desirable, especially if accompanied by good commentary, and this, for the field of brain structure and function, is what Clarke and O'Malley have produced.
Он подошел к туалетному столику, где лежал бумажник. - Сколько.
Снова и снова тянется его рука, поблескивает кольцо, деформированные пальцы тычутся в лица склонившихся над ним незнакомцев. Он что-то им говорит. Но что. Дэвид на экране застыл в глубокой задумчивости. - Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.
Конец лета. Солнце уже зашло. Над головой автоматически зажглись лампы дневного света. Сьюзан нервничала: прошло уже слишком много времени. Взглянув на Следопыта, она нахмурилась.
Ранняя юность Грега Хейла не была омрачена криминальными историями, поскольку он провел ее в Корпусе морской пехоты США, где и познакомился с компьютером. Он стал лучшим программистом корпуса, и перед ним замаячила перспектива отличной военной карьеры. Но за два дня до окончания третьего боевого дежурства в его будущем произошел резкий зигзаг.