Poultry Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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The basic external parts of a chicken include the comb, beak, wattles, ears, earlobes, eyes, eye rings, wings, tail, thighs, hocks, shanks, spurs, claws and toes. As Figures 1 and 2 show, both male and female chickens have these basic parts. The differences between males and females include the size of the comb and wattles, the size of the spurs in older birds , and the characteristics of the hackle and cape feathers.

Poultry Education Resources

Bird anatomy , or the physiological structure of birds ' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight. Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. The development of a beak has led to evolution of a specially adapted digestive system. Birds have many bones that are hollow pneumatized with criss-crossing struts or trusses for structural strength.

The number of hollow bones varies among species, though large gliding and soaring birds tend to have the most. Respiratory air sacs often form air pockets within the semi-hollow bones of the bird's skeleton. Penguins , loons , [2] and puffins are without pneumatized bones entirely. The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight.

It is extremely lightweight but strong enough to withstand the stresses of taking off, flying, and landing. One key adaptation is the fusing of bones into single ossifications , such as the pygostyle. Because of this, birds usually have a smaller number of bones than other terrestrial vertebrates.

Birds also lack teeth or even a true jaw , and instead have a beak , which is far more lightweight. The beaks of many baby birds have a projection called an egg tooth , which facilitates their exit from the amniotic egg , which falls off once the egg has been penetrated. The vertebral column is divided into five sections of vertebrae :. The neck of a bird is composed of 13—25 cervical vertebrae enabling birds to have increased flexibility. Birds are the only living vertebrates to have fused collarbones and a keeled breastbone.

The chest consists of the furcula wishbone and coracoid collar bone , which, together with the scapula , form the pectoral girdle. The side of the chest is formed by the ribs, which meet at the sternum mid-line of the chest. Birds have uncinate processes on the ribs. These are hooked extensions of bone which help to strengthen the rib cage by overlapping with the rib behind them.

This feature is also found in the tuatara Sphenodon. The skull consists of five major bones: the frontal top of head , parietal back of head , premaxillary and nasal top beak , and the mandible bottom beak.

The eye occupies a considerable amount of the skull and is surrounded by a sclerotic eye-ring , a ring of tiny bones. This characteristic is also seen in their reptile cousins. Broadly speaking, avian skulls consist of many small, non-overlapping bones. Pedomorphosis , maintenance of the ancestral state in adults, is thought to have facilitated the evolution of the avian skull. In essence, adult bird skulls will resemble the juvenile form of their theropod dinosaur ancestors. A reduction in the adductor chambers has also occurred [17] These are all conditions seen in the juvenile form of their ancestors.

The premaxillary bone has also hypertrophied to form the beak while the maxilla has become diminished, as suggested by both developmental [15] and paleontological [18] studies. This expansion into the beak has occurred in tandem with the loss of a functional hand and the developmental of a point at the front of the beak that resembles a "finger". The structure of the avian skull has important implications for their feeding behaviours. Birds show independent movement of the skull bones known as cranial kinesis.

Cranial kinesis in birds occurs in several forms, but all of the different varieties are all made possible by the anatomy of the skull. Animals with large, overlapping bones including the ancestors of modern birds [21] have akinetic non-kinetic skulls. Birds have a diapsid skull, as in reptiles, with a pre-lachrymal fossa present in some reptiles. The skull has a single occipital condyle. The shoulder consists of the scapula shoulder blade , coracoid , and humerus upper arm.

The humerus joins the radius and ulna forearm to form the elbow. The carpus and metacarpus form the "wrist" and "hand" of the bird, and the digits are fused together. The bones in the wing are extremely light so that the bird can fly more easily.

The hips consist of the pelvis, which includes three major bones: the ilium top of the hip , ischium sides of hip , and pubis front of the hip. These are fused into one the innominate bone. Innominate bones are evolutionary significant in that they allow birds to lay eggs. They meet at the acetabulum hip socket and articulate with the femur, which is the first bone of the hind limb. The upper leg consists of the femur. At the knee joint, the femur connects to the tibiotarsus shin and fibula side of lower leg.

The tarsometatarsus forms the upper part of the foot, digits make up the toes. The leg bones of birds are the heaviest, contributing to a low center of gravity, which aids in flight.

They have a greatly elongate tetradiate pelvis , similar to some reptiles. The hind limb has an intra-tarsal joint found also in some reptiles.

There is extensive fusion of the trunk vertebrae as well as fusion with the pectoral girdle. Birds' feet are classified as anisodactyl , zygodactyl , heterodactyl , syndactyl or pamprodactyl.

This is common in songbirds and other perching birds , as well as hunting birds like eagles , hawks , and falcons. Syndactyly, as it occurs in birds, is like anisodactyly, except that the second and third toes the inner and middle forward-pointing toes , or three toes, are fused together, as in the belted kingfisher Ceryle alcyon. This is characteristic of Coraciiformes kingfishers , bee-eaters , rollers , etc. This arrangement is most common in arboreal species, particularly those that climb tree trunks or clamber through foliage.

Zygodactyly occurs in the parrots , woodpeckers including flickers , cuckoos including roadrunners , and some owls. Zygodactyl tracks have been found dating to — Ma early Cretaceous , 50 million years before the first identified zygodactyl fossils. Heterodactyly is like zygodactyly, except that digits three and four point forward and digits one and two point back. This is found only in trogons , while pamprodactyl is an arrangement in which all four toes may point forward, or birds may rotate the outer two toes backward.

It is a characteristic of swifts Apodidae. A significant similarity in the structure of the hind limbs of birds and dinosaurs is associated with their ability to walk on two legs, or bipedalism. Modern scientists believe that, on the contrary, it was a necessary condition for the occurrence of flight. The transition to the use of only the hind limbs for movement was accompanied by an increase in the rigidity of the lumbar and sacral regions. The pubic bones of birds and some bipedal dinosaurs are turned backward.

Scientists associate this with a shift in the center of gravity of the body backward. The reason for this shift is called the transition to bipedality or the development of powerful forelimbs, as in Archeopteryx. Partial tail reduction and subsequent formation of pigostyle occurred due to the backward deviation of the first toe of the hind limb; in dinosaurs with a long rigid tail, the development of the foot proceeded differently.

This process, apparently, took place in parallel in birds and dinosaurs. In general, the anisodactyl foot, which also has a better grasping ability and allows confident movement both on the ground and along branches, is ancestral for birds. Against this background, pterosaurs stand out, which, in the process of unsuccessful evolutionary changes, could not fully move on two legs, but instead developed an aircraft that was fundamentally different from birds.

Changes in the hind limbs did not affect the location of the forelimbs, which in birds remained laterally spaced, and in dinosaurs they switched to a parasagittal orientation. Proponents of the running hypothesis believe that flight was formed through fast running, bouncing, and then gliding.

The forelimbs could be used for grasping after a jump or as "insect trapping nets", animals could wave them, helping themselves during the jump. According to the arboreal hypothesis, the ancestors of birds climbed trees with the help of their forelimbs, and from there they planned, after which they proceeded to flight.

Most birds have approximately different muscles, mainly controlling the wings, skin, and legs. Overall, the muscle mass of birds is concentrated ventrally.

They provide the powerful wing stroke essential for flight. The muscle deep to underneath the pectorals is the supracoracoideus, or the pectoralis minor. It raises the wing between wingbeats. Both muscle groups attach to the keel of the sternum. This is remarkable, because other vertebrates have the muscles to raise the upper limbs generally attached to areas on the back of the spine. Additionally, there are other abdominal muscles present that expand and contract the chest, and hold the ribcage.

The muscles of the wing, as seen in the labelled images, function mainly in extending or flexing the elbow, moving the wing as a whole or in extending or flexing particular digits. These muscles work to adjust the wings for flight and all other actions. Birds have unique necks which are elongated with complex musculature as it must allow for the head to perform functions other animals may utilize pectoral limbs for. The skin muscles help a bird in its flight by adjusting the feathers, which are attached to the skin muscle and help the bird in its flight maneuvers as well as aiding in mating rituals.

There are only a few muscles in the trunk and the tail, but they are very strong and are essential for the bird. These include the lateralis caudae and the levator caudae which control movement of the tail and the spreading of rectrices, giving the tail a larger surface area which helps keep the bird in the air as well as aiding in turning.

Muscle composition and adaptation differ by theories of muscle adaptation in whether evolution of flight came from flapping or gliding first. The scales of birds are composed of keratin, like beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and tarsi lower leg of birds , usually up to the tibio-tarsal joint, but may be found further up the legs in some birds. In many of the eagles and owls the legs are feathered down to but not including their toes.

The scales and scutes of birds were originally thought to be homologous to those of reptiles; [40] however, more recent research suggests that scales in birds re-evolved after the evolution of feathers. Bird embryos begin development with smooth skin. On the feet, the corneum , or outermost layer, of this skin may keratinize, thicken and form scales. These scales can be organized into;.

The rows of scutes on the anterior of the metatarsus can be called an "acrometatarsium" or "acrotarsium". Reticula are located on the lateral and medial surfaces sides of the foot and were originally thought to be separate scales.

Color Atlas of Avian Anatomy (Free PDF)

Post a Comment. Tuesday, November 4, Anatomy and Physiology of the Chicken. Cell Nucleus and Ribosomr. In vertebrates there are three main types of muscles. Each muscle is the bundle of muscle fiber, each of in which is an enormous multi nucleated cell.

Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. The Sixth Edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and features several new chapters with entirely new content on such topics as migration, genomics and epigenetics. Chapters throughout have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. The text also covers the physiology of flight, reproduction in both male and female birds, and the immunophysiology of birds. The Sixth Edition, like the earlier editions, is a must for anyone interested in comparative physiology, poultry science, veterinary medicine, and related fields. This volume establishes the standard for those who need the latest and best information on the physiology of birds.

Anatomy of Poultry pdf. Poultry Farming American Poultry Association. Chicken Anatomy at the Fugal Chicken. The Happy Chicken Coop. Your lesson in chicken anatomy undoubtedly started years ago at the dining room table. Through meals, you learned to recognize breasts, thighs, wings and drumsticks.

Color Atlas of Avian Anatomy (Free PDF)

Bird anatomy , or the physiological structure of birds ' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight. Birds have a light skeletal system and light but powerful musculature which, along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. The development of a beak has led to evolution of a specially adapted digestive system. Birds have many bones that are hollow pneumatized with criss-crossing struts or trusses for structural strength. The number of hollow bones varies among species, though large gliding and soaring birds tend to have the most.

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Color Atlas of Avian Anatomy (Free PDF)

This interactive module traces the evolutionary history of birds by comparing the bone structures of a chicken to those of other species. Students compare the bones of a chicken to those of its dinosaur relatives at key nodes of the tree, to pinpoint some of the similarities that suggest that birds are avian dinosaurs. Skip to main content. Share This.

 Да, - сказал Беккер.  - Мы кое-что упустили. ГЛАВА 13 Токуген Нуматака стоял у окна своего роскошного кабинета на верхнем этаже небоскреба и разглядывал завораживающие очертания Токио на фоне ярко-синего неба. Служащие и конкуренты называли Нуматаку акута саме - смертоносной акулой. За три десятилетия он перехитрил, превзошел и задавил рекламой всех своих японских конкурентов, и теперь лишь один шаг отделял его от того, чтобы превратиться еще и в гиганта мирового рынка. Он собирался совершить крупнейшую в своей жизни сделку - сделку, которая превратит его Нуматек корпорейшн в Майкрософт будущего. При мысли об этом он почувствовал прилив адреналина.

Беккер заговорил по-испански с сильным франко-американским акцентом: - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер. Я из канадского посольства. Наш гражданин был сегодня доставлен в вашу больницу. Я хотел бы получить информацию о нем, с тем чтобы посольство могло оплатить его лечение. - Прекрасно, - прозвучал женский голос.  - Я пошлю эту информацию в посольство в понедельник прямо с утра.


What is Physiology? Physiology: the science that deals with the functions of the living organism and its parts.


Ей слышался голос Дэвида: Беги, Сьюзан, беги. Стратмор приближался к ней, его лицо казалось далеким воспоминанием. Холодные серые глаза смотрели безжизненно. Живший в ее сознании герой умер, превратился в убийцу. Его руки внезапно снова потянулись к ней в отчаянном порыве.

ГЛАВА 32 Дэвид Беккер остановился в коридоре у номера 301. Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо. Вопрос национальной безопасности.

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