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Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death

These changes include blebbing , cell shrinkage , nuclear fragmentation , chromatin condensation , chromosomal DNA fragmentation , and global [ vague ] mRNA decay. The average adult human loses between 50 and 70 billion cells each day due to apoptosis. In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's life cycle. For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits undergo apoptosis. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them.

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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways of Apoptosis

In molecular biology, the words extrinsic pathway may refer to both the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis and the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Here we mainly talk about the first kind of extrinsic pathway which is extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Extrinsic apoptosis pathway is one of the signal pathways which may trigger the process of programmed cell death namely cell apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as a physiological process of cell deletion and is also a process of programmed cell death, resulting in morphological change and DNA fragmentation. It is stimulated by external or internal events of cells, one of which is the extrinsic pathway mediated by the death receptor. The TNFR family is a large family consisting of 29 transmembrane receptor proteins, organized in homotrimers and activated by binding of the respective ligand s.

In multicellular organisms, cell death is a critical and active process that maintains tissue homeostasis and eliminates potentially harmful cells. There are three major types of morphologically distinct cell death: apoptosis type I cell death , autophagic cell death type II , and necrosis type III. All three can be executed through distinct, and sometimes overlapping, signaling pathways that are engaged in response to specific stimuli. Apoptosis is triggered when cell-surface death receptors such as Fas are bound by their ligands the extrinsic pathway or when Bcl2-family proapoptotic proteins cause the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane the intrinsic pathway. Both pathways converge on the activation of the caspase protease family, which is ultimately responsible for the dismantling of the cell. Autophagy defines a catabolic process in which parts of the cytosol and specific organelles are engulfed by a double-membrane structure, known as the autophagosome, and eventually degraded.

The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis either too little or too much is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated.

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 - Она показала ему другую колонку.  - Видишь. - Вижу, - сказал Бринкерхофф, стараясь сосредоточиться на документе.

 И что же, - спросила Мидж, - это и есть искомый ключ. - Наверняка, - объявил Бринкерхофф. Фонтейн молча обдумывал информацию.

Cell Death Signaling

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PDF | Is a pathway of cell death in which cells activate enzymes that degrade the cells' (Intrinsic). pathway Death Receptor. (Extrinsic) pathway. There are two main As HLA play important role in Ag presentation, it is important to study its.


 Элементы! - воскликнул.  - Мы говорим о математике, а не об истории. Головы повернулись к спутниковому экрану. - Танкадо играет с нами в слова! - сказал Беккер.

 Понятно. Она получит ваше письмо утром. - Спасибо, - улыбнулся Беккер и повернулся, собираясь уходить.

Любое правительство выложит любые деньги. Можешь ли ты представить себе, как мы будем докладываем президенту, что перехватили сообщения иракцев, но не в состоянии их прочитать. И дело тут не только в АНБ, речь идет обо всем разведывательном сообществе.

Проще было его игнорировать.

5 Response
  1. Madison M.

    Mechanisms of Apoptosis. • Death receptor (Extrinsic) pathway. • Mitochrondrial (​Intrinsic) pathway. • Execution Phase. • Removal of dead cells. This slide.

  2. Maryse L.

    The intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis are both naturally occurring processes by which a cell is directed to programmed cell death.

  3. Sam C.

    Intracellular cues, such as damage to the cell's DNA, drive apoptosis primarily through the intrinsic pathway.

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